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Mugla

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MUĞLA

Area: 13.338 km²
 
Population: 562.809 (1990)
 
Traffic Code : 48
 
The province of Muğla is located at the south of the Aegean Region and is founded at the skirts of the Asar (Hisar) Mountain spreading towards the plain and is a beautiful and clean tourism paradise with its original architecture, whitewashed walls, red roof tiled roofs, authentic chimneys and narrow streets.
 
Districts : Muğla (center), Bodrum, Dalaman, Datça, Fethiye, Kavaklıdere, Köyceğiz, Marmaris, Milas, Ortaca, Ula, Yatağan.
 
 
 How to Get
 
Highway : The transportation to the province and its districts, all of which have their own historical and touristic properties is possible via highway from the neighboring and other cities. It is possible to reach to the province by bus journeys from İzmir, Ankara and Istanbul provinces. The transportation to other districts and the travel in the city is via minibuses.
 
Telephone of the Bus Station: (+ 90 - 252) 212 61 30
 
Railway : Telephone of the Railway Station: (+ 90 - 252) 417 06 16
 
Air Transportation : The nearest airport is located at the Marmaris District. It is also possible to use the Bodrum and Dalaman Airports for arrival.
 
Telephone of the Dalaman Airport:(+ 90 - 252) 792 52 91
Telephone of the Bodrum Airport:(+ 90 - 252) 523 01 29
Telephone of the Marmaris Airport:(+ 90 - 252) 692 54 99
 
 Where to Visit
 
BODRUM
 
Homer's description of Bodrum as "The land of eternal blue" and the words of another resident of Bodrum, Cevat Şakir, who said "The heavenly bliss of life in Bodrum is better than any eternal bliss that may await us" were not without foundation in reality. Throughout history Bodrum, known as Halicarnassos in ancient times, has always been fought over and people have been unwilling to share its beauty with others.
 
Built on a peninsula formed by the meeting of the eastern and western harbors, Bodrum, with its narrow streets winding down to the sea, is famous for its castle, its world-renowned yachts, its shipyards and the dazzling white houses and tombs lining the shores of its two harbors.
 
Bodrum has all the facilities to meet the expectations of tourists from all income levels ranging from the rich yacht owners to the penny counting tourists who just want a reasonable room to make his vacation last all summer.
 
History
 
Bodrum has been the cradle of several civilizations. Down through the ages it has suffered from the countless invasions of those coming from the Aegean islands and has been important to all those powers wishing to dominate the Aegean.Halicarnassos(Bodrum) was an important city in the Caria civilization which was located between its much more powerful neighbors Lykia and Ionia. The region boasts such greats as the historian Heredotus, history's first woman admiral Artemisia I, and the just-as-skilled Artemisia II as well as artists like Leachares and Shepas.
 
Bodrum experienced the dominance of various civilizations throughout the history such as Persians,Mecedonians,Roman Empire and Byzantines. Byzantines lost their power in Anatolian region after they were defeated by the Seljuk Ruler Alpaslan at Malazgirt in 1071.  Rhodian knights had constructed the present Bodrum castle and established theirrule over the region. Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent on his military expedition to Rhodes conquered Bodrum together with Rhodes and added them to the territory of Ottoman Empire.
 
Climate
 
Summers are hot and dry while winters are mild and rainy.
 
 How to Get
 
By Road
 
Transportation to Bodrum from all over Turkey through bus services is available. Bus terminal is in the city center.
 
Bus Station Tel:(+90-252) 316 26 37
 
By Sea
 
There are regular ferryboat services to the Greek islands of Cos and Rhodes. There are also connections to Knidos, Didim and Dalyan. The ferryboats and sea-buses all leave from the main harbor.
 
Bodrum Ferryboat Agency:(+90-252) 316 0882
Bodrum Express (Sea Bus): (+90-252) 316 10 87
 
By Air
 
The Bodrum-Milas Airport is 30 km. from the city center. Transportation is provided by Turkish Airlines, taxis and minibuses.
 
Airport Tel: (+90-252) 523 01 01
 
 Where to Visit
 
MUSEUMS
 
The Underwater Archeological Museum of Bodrum
 
It is one of the most important and biggest museums of its kind in the world. The relics recovered from excavation which started in the 1960's are on display in this museum located in the Bodrum Castle.The Eastern Mediterranean amphora collection as well as findings resulting from research on sunken ships in the immediate vicinity are on display. The significant of this sunken ships are those at Yassıada, Şeytan Brook and Serçe Harbour. The remains of the oldest known sunken ship in the world are also here and well-worth seeing.
 
Bodrum Castle Tel: (+90-252) 316 10 95
Open hours to visit: 10:00-12:00, 14:00-18:00
Open days to visit: Everyday except Monday.
 
MaussolleionOpenAirMuseum
 
It gets its name from the fact that the tomb of Mausolos, the King of Caria, is located here. His wife, also his sister, had the most famous architects of the day design the structure. It was almost completely destroyed in the Great Anatolian earthquake. There is a small museum here at the site of this tomb which was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. The word "maussolleion" is taken from King Mausolos' name. Many of the stones of this Mausoleum were used in the construction of Bodrum Castle. The beautiful reliefs on the grave, however, were taken to the British Museum during the excavations in the 19th century.
 
Ancient Theater
 
The theater is located on the Bodrum - Turgutreis road. It has an audience capacity of 13,000 seats. The stage area has been uncovered and the seats have been restored.
 
Rock Tombs
 
Above the theater on the slope are rock tombs that belong to the Hellenistic and Roman periods.
 
Myndos Door
 
Located west of the city, it is one of the entrances to the city of Halicarnassos. The Myndos Door consisted of two monumental towers and an inner courtyard at the gate that lead to the city.
 
ÇıfıtCastle (Aspat)
 
Built on a rocky outcrop in the southwestern portion of the peninsula close to Bağla cove, it contains artefacts from several civilizations.
 
Stratonikeia
 
Located on the Yatağan - Milas highway, the ruins in the village of Eskihisar contains a very rich collection of artefacts from the Caria, Roman and Byzantine eras.
 
Lagina
 
The temple of Hecate can be reached by following the dirt road (9 km) leading to Turgut. Excavations have shown that this city, once an important center of the Caria Civilization, has been inhabited since the Early Bronze Age.
 
CedraiIsland
 
One of the most eminent ruins of the region with its rich history and natural beauty, Sedir Island can be reached by boat either from Gökova - Akyaka or Çamlıköy. The ruins which one would want to see first are the Temple of Apollo, the theater,and the ancient harbor. The famous Cleopatra beach is here as well.
 
Cisterns
 
Cisterns built by the Ottomans and known as "Gümbet" can be seen all over the peninsula. They were built by the wealthy citizens who named the cisterns after themselves.
 
CASTLES
 
BodrumCastle (Saint Petrum)
 
Built by the Knights of Rhodes in the 15th century and dedicated to St. Peter, the construction of the castle was completed in 99 years. It was built on Zephyrion island, the original site of the city of Halicarnassos.Stones and reliefs from the Mausoleum of King Mausolos were used in its construction. There are 5 towers in this castle; French, English, Italian, German and Snake towers. The castle covers approximately 30,000 sq. meters.
 
MOSQUES
 
Mustafa Paşa Mosque
 
Upon his arrival to Bodrum to construct a dockyard, Mustafa Paşa from Kızılhisar,made this mosque built. (1723).
 
Tepecik Mosque
 
It was constructed by Hamam Ağa, the steward of Mustafa Pasha.
 
Adliye Mosque
 
It was built in 1901 through the means of the monatery fund provided by the amount gathered among the public and given by Abdulhamit II.
 
Şaldırşah Horasani Tomb, Kubbeli Tomb, Mustafa Pasha Tomb including the grave of Kaptan-ı Derya Cafer Pasha and Koyunbaba Tomb are worth to see.
 
BEACHES
 
Güvercinlik: A cove of unusual beauty with every conceivable tone green and blue, it is located 25 km from Bodrum. Salih Island, located right across the water, only serves to enhance the natural appeal of this beautiful cove.
 
Torba: A peaceful little village just 5 km from Bodrum is a charming and lively place where the shining sea melds with the green pines and olive trees. There are boats going to Didim, Milet and Priene from here.
 
Gölköy: Located 13 km north of Bodrum, this beautiful cove blends the green of olive, tangerine and pine trees with that of palms. Because it faces the north, it is always lush and the water in the cove is cooler than that in the other coves.
 
Türkbükü: Situated beside Gölköy, at a distanceof 15 km from Bodrum, it resembles Gölköy in almost every way. It is one of the places preferred by people looking for peace and quiet.
 
Gündoğan: Located 18 km from Bodrum, Gündoğan cove is one of the coves that has been least changed by man and which still preserves its beauty in the most natural way. Its tangerine orchards are famous.
 
Yalıkavak: This village is 18 km from Bodrum in the northwestern part of the peninsula. It is famous for its windmills, fish, citrus orchards and sea. The most famous sponge divers have come from this village.
 
Gümüşlük: It is one of the oldest settlements on the peninsula. It is still possible to see the underwater remains of the old harbor wall which connected Tavşan Island to the mainland. The sea and fish here are famous. Watching the sun set here amidst the lush green vegetation will be a life-long memory.
 
Kadıkalesi: The sandy beaches of this crystal clear sea are surrounded with citrus orchards. Situated 23 km from Bodrum, it gets its name from the remains of a nearby castle belonging to the Hellenistic era.
 
Turgutreis: Situated 20 km from Bodrum, the town is famous for its tangerine orchards. It was named after the famous Turkish admiral, Turgut Reis. In terms of population, it is one of the most populous areas of the peninsula. It is known for its unforgettable sunsets.
 
Akyarlar: This cove with its wonderful beach and crystal clear waters is 13 km from Bodrum. It is one of the best places  to surf.
 
Karaincir: Situated 16 km out of Bodrum, its 500 m. beach is one of the best in the area.
 
Bağla: With one of the best coves and beaches on the peninsula, it is an excellent place to camp and is 14 km from Bodrum.
 
Aspat: Rising out of the shores of the Aegean and mentioned often in Turkish folk music, the real name of Aspat is Aspartos. Built on a barren rock, the perimeter of Aspat Castle measures 700 paces. The remains of several civilizations dating back to the Classical Age can be seen here.
 
Ortakent: Located 14 km from Bodrum, its waters are warm and it has sandy beaches. Its tangerine orchards are quite famous. It is one of the best vantage points from which to view village life in Bodrum.
 
Bitez: One of the most beautiful coves on the peninsula, it is 10 km from Bodrum. It has sandy beaches. It is a beautiful quiet corner where blue and green reach out to touch each other in the tangerine orchards which stretch from the village to the sea.
Gümbet: About 3 km west of Bodrum, its waters are very shallow. Bardakçı is at a distance of 500 m. from Bodrum. Most people go there by boat. It is known for its beach and the water, which is as clear as glass, as well as the fresh water spring there.
 
Bardakçı: It is 500 m. from Bodrum.One can reach to Bardakçı by sea easily.Its crystal clear sea is well-known for its springs.
 
Karaada: Situated 6 km from Bodrum, it is famous for its healing mineral springs. The water comes out of a cave and the mud from the cave is said to be good for skin conditions.
 
Ada Boğazı (Aquarium): It is called as Aquarium because of its crystal-clear waters. IIn the open waters, the seafloor to 30 m depth can be seen with the naked eye.
 
TRADITIONAL BODRUM HOUSES
 
The common features of the traditional architecture used in Bodrum are windowless first floors and doors on the second storey with access by way of ladders that can be drawn up into the house. These houses, which are now protected by the government, are located mostly in the villages of Ortakent and Kocakaya above Gümüşlük.  Individuals,such as artists and writers who have settled in Bodrum have done a great service to the area by restoring older houses and this has made it an even more interesting place to visit.
 
YACHTING
 
With everything from manufacturing and maintenance to repair and operation, the yachting center of Turkey is Bodrum. The tradition of building schooners continues in the İçmeler Shipyard, whose name has become almost synonymous with Bodrum itself. As big as many modern shipyards, luxury sailboats up to 30 meters can be built here using the latest available technology.
 
The marina has a  capacity of 275-yachts. The marina also has 12 slips for the maintenance and repair of yachts as well as wintering.
 
The yacht races in Bodrum are probably the only ones in the world that completely inexperienced people can participate in, even children have participated. The Bodrum Cup is the most comfortable competition for 15-30 m. luxury yachts in the world.
 
THE BLUE VOYAGE
 
Stretching from Bodrum to the south-east, Gökova Bay has been named after Halikarnas Balıkçısı and Azra Erhat as ‘the Blue Voyage” when they first discovered it.  Boats which pull up anchor in Bodrum and head for Gökova will soon discover the ultimate harmony of green and blue and the beauties which lie under the crystal clear waters. A center for manufacturing boats for centuries, the demand of sea-faring visitors has made yacht tourism one of the principal sources of income in Bodrum. Among the first places seen on "The Blue Journey" are Karaada, Kargacık Bükü, Pabuç Burnu, Kargı Adası, Alakışla and Çökertme. Other important stops on "The Blue Journey" are the forested and crystal clear coves of KüçükÇatı, Büyük Çatı, Yedi Adalar, Longöz, Değirmen Bükü, and Karacasöğüt. Besides the natural beauty, historic sites such as Sedir Island, the ancient city of Keramos and Yedi Adalar are frequent stopping places. Allow 7-10 days for this journey, which is open to anyone who wants to join one of the groups.
 
ENTERTAINMENT
 
On the Aegean coast, Bodrum is famous for its colourful life. Besides the vitality and colourfulness of the city in the daytime, Bodrum is also renowned for its exceptionally appealing nightlife From İskele Square to the end of Kumbahçe District, Cumhuriyet Street is lined with bars, pubs, discos and taverns  that guarantee fun and good times for people of all ages. In the mysterious darkness of the Bodrum nights, the magical shimmer that surrounds Bodrum castle adds a certain charm to the atmosphere. The heartbeat of the city's nightlife is in the bars of Bodrum where every kind of music, from jazz to tavern music, can be heard.
 
 What to Eat
 
Local specialties include Köpoğlu hors d'oeuvre made from yogurt, stuffed pumpkin flowers, bergamot jelly and sage oil.
 
 What to Buy
 
Handicrafts in Bodrum are very developed. The beads, leather clothes, cloth, silver jewelry, embroidery, decorations and many other items made in Bodrum are sold on the broad street between İskele Square and Halikarnas Disco.Bodrum has bazaars open six days a week where everything, from needle to thread, from fruit to snacks, can be bought. These bazaars also sell scarves and curtains made of 100% hand-made Milas cloth and hand-painted batik clothing and other decorative items.
 
 Don't Leave Without
 
Seeing the Underwater Museum and Bodrum Castle,
 
Going to the Tuesday Bazaar,
 
Joining one of the daily tours,
 
Stopping by Bodrum Bars,
 
Dining on the excellent fish restaurants in Gümüşlük,
 
Eating Bodrum style 'waterpastry',
 
Eating the spicy 'Ot kavurması' and stuffed pumpkin flowers,
 
Purchasing the Bodrum beads and batik cloth.
 
 Contact Information
 
Head Official's Office: (+90-252) 316 10 01
 
Municipality: (+90-252) 316 10 09
 
Provincial Directorate of Information: (+90-252) 316 10 91
 
Police: (+90-252) 316 80 80
 
Hospital: (+90-252) 313 14 20
 
 
DATÇA
 
        Welcome to Turkey. Welcome to beautiful Datca.
       50 miles down the Knidos  peninsular from Marmaris, on the Mediterranean coast lies the lovely little town of Datca.  To the north the Aegean sea.  The Datca road twists through the mountains like a ribbon with waterfalls, pines, olive, almond, orange and lemon trees; the views along this coastline are stunning.  Surrounded by turquoise/azure seas, beautiful bays with peaceful beaches, friendly villages  and resorts – all beckon you to stay a little longer. Gulets and yachts sail these beautiful and calm waters all summer long.
       Bougainvillaea,oleander,mimosa, melissa, jasmine, and roses are just some of the colourful flowers of this region.  Wild thyme, rosemary, and many more herbs grow wild and smell delicious in the warm air. 
       Restaurants, café bars, antique carpet shops, gifts, leather and jewellery shops are all open till midnight.  On Friday and Saturdays the weekly market takes place. Datca has a magical  quality of its own and all who visit return year after year.
 
FETHİYE
 
Fethiye with its cultural wealth, natural beauties and geography, is among the important tourism centres of Turkey. It is famous for its works of art belong to Persians, Lycians, Carians and Romans. This charming county is in a bay within Fethiye Gulf where both large and small islands are scattered. The rear of the bay is surrounded by pine forests.
 
History
 
The ancient name of Fethiye, which was a coastal city at the borders of Lycia-Caria, is Telmessos. There is not definite information about the foundation of this Ancient city. According to the first written records, it has come into existence in the 5th century B.C. Telmessos, separate from Lycia, survived as an independent city for a long time. The city experienced the rule of Persia, Alexander the Great, Rome, Pergamum Kingdom, Byzantium, Menteşeoğulları Principality and Ottoman State respectively.
 
Climate
 
Mediterranean climate, which is hot and dry during summers and warm and rainy during winters, is dominant in the region. Temperature, which is approximately 30 degrees during summer months, is generally over 10 degrees during winter. Sea water temperature never decreases under 16 degrees during each season.
 
 How to Get
 
By Road
 
Fethiye can be reached easily by road from all cities in Turkey.
 
By Air
 
The nearest airports are Dalaman Airport (50 km) and Bodrum Airport (255 km). Besides the flights of Turkish Airlines both in summer and winter, it is also possible to benefit from the flights from European cities during tourism season. Antalya Airport, at a distance of three hours from Fethiye, also provides transportation to Fethiye.
 
By Sea
 
Naturally sheltered Fethiye harbour is a resort place for all yacht owners. The ships belong to Turkish Maritime Lines also stop by Fethiye.
 
 Where to Visit
 
FethiyeMuseum
 
The Museum has two exhibition halls namely, Archaeology Hall and Ethnography Hall. In the Archaeology Hall, there are ceramic works and statues. Among these, there is a Young Girl’s Statue with a Dove and a trilingual stele, which has played an important role to analyse the Lycian language. Hand woven works special to the region, silver jewellery and dastar (head scarf) loom are exhibited in the Ethnography Hall. In the open exhibition, big stone works of art, tombs and Izraza Monument can be seen. The Museum is open everyday except Monday from 09.00 to 18.00.
 
ANCIENT CITIES
 
GemilerIsland
 
There are the remains of churches, chapels and civilian buildings of Byzantium Period on the island reached by boats from Ölüdeniz (Blue Lagoon) and Gemiler Bay. The island is important due to having been one of the first centres where Christianity began to spread. 
 
Araxa
 
At a distance of 40 km from Fethiye, Araxa was founded on the place where the Ancient Xanthos Brook flows. This wonderful natural water spring has been the subject of many mythological stories. In the ancient city within the borders of today’s Ören village, rampart ruins, a public bath and the water canals of Byzantine Period, have survived up to the present day.
 
Tlos
 
At a distance of 45 km from Fethiye, Tlos is one of the six big cities of the Lycian Federation. The sport centre of the federation is also Tlos. It is known as the city where mythological hero Bellerophon and his winged flying horse Pegasus lived. Determined as the oldest city of Lycian Region by the archaeological excavations, Tlos dates back to the time before 2000 B.C. The graveyard on the natural rocks of the city acropolis was filled with most elaborate house-type tombs Of Lycia. It is known that the king-type tomb in the necropolis is dedicated to Bellerophon.
 
Letoon
 
Situated 55 km far from Fethiye, Lettoon is the religious centre of the Lycia Federation. It is well known for three temples dedicated to the Goddess Leto, Goddess Artemis and God Apollo. Archaeological excavations have been carrying on since 1962 in Lettoon and the churches of the early Christian period are uncovered.
 
Pınara (MinareVillage):
 
It is at the foothills of Mount Akdağ, 55 km from Fethiye. One of the most biggest cities of Lycia Federation, Pınara is known as the city where the first beauty contest is held. The temple, dedicated to the Goddess Aphrodite, also draws attention in the city as it was built in an unusual architectural style. Hundreds of public tombs in the shape of pigeon holes make necropolis unique.
 
Cadianda
 
It is at a distance of 25 km from Fethiye within the borders of Üzümlü village. It is known as the last city joined to the Lycian Federation. The city, was quite destroyed due to natural reasons arising from its different geography. The city with its theatre, agora, complex of stadium- public bath and monumental tombs, unearthed after the excavations carried out by Fethiye Museum, has become very popular in recent years.
 
Kayaköy
 
Kayaköy was a settlement region of Rums (Greeks of Turkish Nationality) in the 14th century. It was founded on the lands of ancient city Karmillassos which had been demolished almost completely excluding a few home-type tombs due to earthquakes. Its ancient name is Levissi. Becoming united with the people of surrounding five Turkish villages and teaching humanity on the concepts of friendship, brotherhood, and peace throughout its history, Kayaköy is one of the most important regions to be proud of. According to the agreement of population exchange signed between Turkish and Greek governments in 1922, Rums living in Kayaköy were exchanged by Turks living in the western Thrace.
 
Telmessos Antique Theater
 
As mentioned in the ancient sources, there was a big theatre in Telmessos. During the drill excavations carried on by the Directorate General of Fethiye Museum in 1993, seats of the theatre were found 3-4 meters under the soil layers formed because of erosion. After the excavations concluded in 1995, all the extant remains of the theatre were re-surfaced. Built in the early Roman Period and repaired in 2000 AD, it is known that the theatre with a capacity of 5000 seats was used as an arena. At present, the theatre has a seating capacity of 1500 people.
 
Cezayirli Mosque
 
The Mosque was built by Cezayirli Hasan Pasha in 1792. Kemer Bridge, Pasha Inn on Yayla road and Aqueducts in Yaka village were also acquired to Fethiye by Hasan Pasha.
 
Inns
 
Main inns of Fethiye; are Ilıca Inn (on the Üzümlü road), İncir Inn, Karatoprak Inn (on İnbecik road), Pasha Inn on Kemer - Seki road, Daydur Inn and Naldöken Inn.
 
Lycia Rock Tombs:
 
Fethiye with its 4th century works of art remaining from Lycia period attracts attention. These are the tombs, carved out on natural rocks, which became the symbol of the district. Amintas which is the most elaborate of these tombs can be reached via many regular stairs. It can also be seen easily from the plain below and the admiration for its greatness increases when approached. At the centre of the left-side column, ‘ Herpamias’ son Amintas ’ was written in the alphabet of 4th century B.C. The identity of this man is not known exactly. There are many tombs worth to see in the district. The most important one of these is the tomb which belongs to the Lycian Period. The tomb, ascending from the sea, has an interesting appearance. On the front side of two storeyed tomb there are quadrangle carvings resembling wooden beams and a gothic style arched cover. Both sides of the cover were ornamented with frescoes depicting wars, and it is thought that these are related to the life of Amintas.
 
FethiyeCastle
 
It is supposed that the castle, ascending in the south of the district, belongs to the Knights of St. John. There are two small and simple rock tombs on the east side of the hill excluding a few writings carved out on the walls and a cistern of which date is indefinite.
 
Ölüdeniz (Blue Lagoon):
 
Ölüdeniz, described as ‘the Eden bestowed by God to the World’, has a 3 km long beach. One can appreciate fully the beauty of swimming in a colour harmony of light and dark blue combined with light and dark green. Having an appearance of naturally lagoon with its tepid and standing water during ten months of the year, Ölüdeniz is one of the most preferred destinations by both local and foreign tourists.
 
Kumburnu separates Ölüdeniz from Belcekız Beach which are at a distance of 14 km from Fethiye. There are many boarding-houses, camps, motels and restaurants that are open during each season of the year.
 
Kıdrak
 
Kıdrak with its sandy beaches surrounded by pine trees and crystal clear water is at a distance of 3 km from Ölüdeniz and Belcekız Beach.
 
Faralya
 
Sweet coastal village at the end of Kıdrak road, is a resort place for wanderers with its wild nature, appropriate climate, friendly people and its attractiveness.
 
KelebeklerValley (ButterflyValley) :
 
At a distance of 5-7 km from Ölüdeniz, this interesting canyon is surrounded by approximately 350 meter high mountains. It takes its name from the butterflies called as ‘Jarsey Tiger’ and seen between June and September. Transportation to the bay, being an Earth Eden with its waterfall flows both in summer and winter, large beach, clear water, brightly shining pebbles and oleanders decorating the environs, is provided by boats from Ölüdeniz. Possibilities like a camping area with tent sites, restaurant, bar, shower cabinets, changing cubicles, etc. are offered in the valley which is the meeting place of world wanderers.
 
Saklıkent (Hidden City):
 
It is 50 km from Fethiye, next to the Karaçay Brook which forms the province borders of Muğla-Antalya. It is a unique natural wonder hiding within a 18 km long magnificent canyon of which height reaches to 600 meter in some places. With its steep rock cliffs, plane trees, clearly flowing spring waters, it is a unique tourism centre which offers possibilities for nature lovers such as mountaineering, trekking and swimming.
 
Yakapark
 
Yakapark, formed by nature with human labour and creativity, is a unique recreation spot where you will experience memorable moments in a mysterious atmosphere with bird sings and sound of water. It can easily be accessed via 2 km road from Yaka Village.
 
Göcek
 
IIt is 30 km far from Fethiye on Fethiye-Muğla highway. Having an appearance of a small charming fisherman town, Göcek has recently become one of the important centres of yacht tourism. Besides its natural harbour, it is a unique tourism heaven with its numerous islands and bays, ruin places and pine forested hills. The town with its marina and increased number of modern facilities, is at a distance of 20 km from Dalaman Airport.
 
Islands
 
Being one the important resort places of Blue Voyagers, the region is named as ‘Inside the Darkness’ by fishermen. It is consisted of islands and Kapıdağı Peninsula adorned with numerous beautiful bays. Yassıca Islands, Hamam Bay, Kurşunlu Bay, Yavansu, Bedri RahmiBay, Tersane Island, Göbün Bay, Boynuzbükü, Göcek Island, Domuz Island, Zeytin Island, Kızıl Island, reached via daily tours from Fethiye and Göcek, are also named as "12 Islands" within the region.
 
Oyuktepe Bays
 
Besides the two big holiday villages of the district, there are also natural bays namely Mempaşa, Küçük Samanlık, Boncuklu, Kuleli, Aksazlar, Akvaryum, Turunç Pınarı on the peninsula to where local people have daily tours.
 
KatrancıBay
 
It is 17 km far from Fethiye on Muğla-Fethiye highway. With its frequent pine trees stretching to the sea, the bay displays a beautiful harmony of blue and green. In the bay, there is a forest resting area offering the services of car park, buffet, shower cabinet and toilet. It is an ideal excursion place and a camping area with tent sites.
 
Günlük (Küçük Kargı):
 
The bay is at a distance of 18 km from Fethiye on the Muğla highway, and is ornamented with rarely seen sweetgum trees having a nice smell. The daily excretion of sweetgum trees is used in the treatment of itchiness, asthma, bronchitis, ulcer and gastric diseases. It is also used in the industry of perfumery.
 
ÇalışBeach
 
Being one of the popular places of the district in respect of tourism, Çalış Beach is 5 km from the district centre, opposite of the Şovalye Island. Along the 4 km long beach, there are hotels, boarding-houses, camp sites and restaurants. The Beach is well known as one of the incubation areas of sea turtles, Caretta Carettas. It is also one of the favourite places to view the sunset and play water sports.
 
Hisarönü - Ovacık
 
These two typical Turkish villages in Ölüdeniz (Blue Lagoon) have recently become shopping and entertainment centres providing accommodation. At present, these villages near draw the attention of especially foreign tourists.
 
Sports Activities:
 
Paragliding:
 
Interest in paragliding, being performed by 6 travel agencies from the top of 1975 meters high Mount Babadağ in Fethiye, has been increasing day by day all over the world. Because of its rich and spread thermal points, characteristic of flying ascending after jumping, vegetation diversity in the environs, beautiful scenery of Ölüdeniz (Blue Lagoon), slight slope to the sea and many more reasons like these, Babadağ is a paragliding centre unrivalled in the region.
 
Paragliding in Fethiye
 
ÖLÜDENİZ - BABADAĞ
 
Location: Mount Baba, which is on the province territory of Fethiye of Muğla city, is 7 km inside from the coastal line. It rises just after the Ölüdeniz (Blue Lagoon) beach and faces just towards to south. You can reach to take off runway via a 45 minutes from Ölüdeniz stabilize but nearly smooth road.
 
Flight Season: Secure flights can be performed between April and October.
 
Regional Characteristics: Ölüdeniz, which is the first place where paragliding is performed in Turkey, has a world - wide fame. Its unique nature, sun and sea is enchanting thousands of national and foreign tourists every year, and has a structure appropriate for all kinds of outdoor activity. There is no transportation, accommodation and nutrition problems within the developed touristic center, region. Yacht tours are also drawing attention in the area. Mount Baba is preferred as trekking and camping area during summer and winter.
 
Take Off Runways: There are a total of three runways in Mount Baba. 1700 meters high south runway is appropriate for take off. 1800 meters high north runway is a little bit small and upright. Take off area of the 1900 meters high north peek runway is very comfortable. As 1700 meters high runway is taking the south wind just from the opposite side during the most part of the day, generally take off is made from here. Approximately 20 wings can be lied on very wide runway at the same time.
 
Landing Runway: Belcekız beach at the coast of Ölüdeniz, is a long and very comfortable and secure landing runway with its width.
 
Meteorological Characteristics: During summer season, weather is stable. Sometimes during morning hours a north wind comes and take off is made from north runways into the valley. South runway faces a south wind, between 5 - 20 km. during most of the day hours.
 
Things that should be considered: Especially during the beginning and end of the season, climate change months weather can change rapidly and cloud can cover the take off area. On south runway, during the period till to the midday west wind coming from the west end of the mount, can create a false south wind and mislead.
 
Scuba Diving:
 
Diving tours are being organised by many diving training centres and clubs in Fethiye.
 
Rafting:
 
Rafting and Canoe trips in Eşen and Dalaman brooks are being organised by travel agencies.
 
 What to Buy
 
Rock Carpets woven by local people, head scarves with grape motifs, saddlebags and sacks made of wool and Karaçulha rugs can be bought in shops and bazaars of Fethiye
 
 Don't Leave Without
 
Without seeing Ölü Deniz (Blue Lagoon),
 
Without visiting Kelebekler Valley (Butterfly Valley),
 
Without eating fish in Göcek,
 
Without seeing Kayaköy,
 
Without staying in a hair tent in plateau.
 
 Contact Information
 
Tourism Information: (+90 252) 614 15 27
 
Police: (+90 252) 614 40 17
 
Harbor Directorate: (+90 252) 614 11 87
 
Hospital: (+90 252) 614 40 17
 
KÖYCEĞİZ
 
Köyceğiz, which is 60 km. away from Muğla is a unique beautiful borough with its citrus gardens, spread around the lake with descending from a plain, its village houses, its calm lake, marshes around the lake, its mountains changing their colors from purple to blue.
 
Climate
 
Mediterranean climate is seen at coastal part of the Köyceğiz, and continental climate is seen at mountainous regions of it. Köyceğiz, which is the second place for rain after Rize in Turkey, winter rains can continue for 3 or 4 months.
 
History
 
Province center of Köyceğiz, which took its name from the lake near to it, become a Dalyan village for a while, but as a result of disturbance of connection with Muğla due to floods it is moved to its today's place. It was homeland for Carians and Menteşoğullarına, and become government during Murat II period. Together with the establishment of our Republic, it become a province of Muğla city.
 
 How to Get
 
 
By Road
 
It is reached via bus voyages from İzmir, Ankara and İstanbul. Transportation to the other provinces and internal city transportation is made via minibuses.
 
Coach Station Tel: (+90 - 252) 262 46 87
 
By Air
 
Nearest airport to the province is Dalaman Airport. Transportation from airport, 35 km. away from province is made via taxis and minibuses.
 
Havalimanı Tel: (+90 - 252) 792 52 91
 
 Where to Visit
 
ANCIENT CITIES
 
Kaunos Ruins
 
It is accepted that first settlement is till to the 1000 B. C. Lycia, Caria and Romans are the ones who settled here. Acropolis and ramparts, theater, Roman bath, round fountain revealed during excavations, temple and agora are the visible ruins here.
 
Rock Graves
 
Rock graves near to the Dalyan channel which connects Köyceğiz lake and Mediterranean are dated as 4th century B. C.
 
RELIGIOUS MONUMENTS
 
There is a mosque constructed during Menteşe period. Benliler Mausoleum, Nasuh Dede Mausoleum and Kargın Kürü Mausoleum are valuable to see religious places.
 
BRIDGES
 
Akköprü
 
It is one of the most valuable to see places with its natural beauties and historical values. Akköprü is constructed within its name mentioned village over Dalaman stream. There are some aqueducts on the bridge thought to be constructed by Byzantium.
 
Promenade
 
Kulak Menre place which is 1 km. away from the province, Ağla Camping Area in which Acılık fountain, where drinking water is maintained, is present as well as Toprak water camp are the main promenade places.
 
THERMAL SPRINGS
 
Sultaniye Thermal and Mineral Springs It is operated by Caunoses on 100 B. C. Ruins of this afterwards widen thermal spring with new additions during Bizantium period are within the lake today. It is recommended for rheumatism, nephritis, mental tiredness, skin and gynecological diseases, kidney and urethra diseases. As well as it can be reached with a short road voyage from Köyceğiz, you can also reach there via motor from lake.
 
BEACHES
 
DalyanStrait
 
People who have participated to a ship tour from the strait which connects Köyceğiz lake to Mediterranean are stroll between narrow corridors, which are not known where to enter and where to leave. Peninsula is just like a haven with at the left side, a 80 - 100 m. wide, kilometers long, forest entering sand sea, at the right side, bays within pine forests.
 
İztuzuBeach
 
It is a unique beautiful beach on which Caretta - Carettas are lying their eggs.
 
SPORTS ACTIVITIES
 
Yachting When you go to Marmaris from Dalyan, there are bays, peninsulas and natural beaches sealed within each other. Ekincik, Karağaç, Aksanlar like secret havens can be found there
 
 What to Buy
 
Pinks and hand - painted handkerchiefs, honey, handicrafts are the souvenirs that can be bought from the region.
 
 Don't Leave Without
 
Seeing Rock Graves,
 
Participating to Lake - Dalyan Channels, İztuzu Beach ship tours,
 
Visiting public bazaar,
 
Buying waxed fish egg.
 
 Contact Information
 
Tourism Information Office: (+90-252) 262 47 03
 
Police: (+90- 252) 262 47 13
 
Hospital: (+90-252) 262 47 18
 
MARMARİS
 
Once a sleepy fishing village, Marmaris has ballooned into one of the largest resorts on the Aegean coast, if not Turkey. Little of its history remains, as the town is now a modern development with tourism at its heart and soul. The population swells to a massive 200,000 in the summer, with most hotels, restaurants, nightclubs and shops catering to low-cost package holidays, although there are facilities for all budgets.
 
Despite the development which reaches around 10km along the west of the bay, Marmaris is also well-known for its expanse of green, present the whole year round thanks to the pine-covered hills which surround the town. There are many beaches around the bay, and there are ancient cities and seaside villages close by for day trips. The yacht harbour is the biggest and newest in Turkey, and therefore the busiest charter port especially for trips along the Turquoise Coast.
 
In addition to the climate, beaches and facilities of the town, the transportation infrastructure is a definite plus for attracting visitors. It has easy connections to the nearby airport Dalaman, ferries to Rhodes, and on the road to Datca and Fethiye. The harbour has attracted private boats from around the world, with yacht maintenance and production in the workshops on the Yalanci Strait. With the climate being comfortable even in winter, and the nearby impressive mountains and pine forests, Marmaris is likely to remain a popular and practical holiday spot for a long time.
 
History
 
It is thought that the first settlement in Marmaris, whose history dates back to 3400 BC, began with the arrival of a tribe to the region, whose leader was called Kar. The area was then called Karla after him, and its location around the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas always made it an appealing region.
 
Suleyman the Magnificent assembled a force of 200,000 in 1522, whilst launching the siege of the Knights of St John’s base in Rhodes (Rodos). Soon afterwards, he made the city more powerful with the rebuilding of the tiny castle overlooking the town. Lord Nelson and his entire fleet sheltered in the harbour in 1798, en route to Egypt to defeat Napoleon’s armada at the Battle of Aboukir.
 
Marmaris therefore became a place where different civilisations reigned over time, and there is architectural and historical evidence of Egyptian, Asdur, Ion, Dor, Persian, Macedonian, Syrian, Roman, Byzantium, Seljuk and Ottoman presence.
 
Climate
 
Summers are extremely hot and dry, with daytime temperatures reaching up to 35 degrees, and winters are warm and wet, plunging to 5 degrees at night. The area is quite typical of a Mediterranean climate.
 
 How to Get
 
By Road
 
Marmaris is well connected to most places in Turkey by bus, with many more services in summer. There are buses every hour to the closer resorts of Bodrum (3 hours), Fethiye 3 hours), Izmir (5 hours) and Datca (90 mins). Long distance direct services include Antalya (7hours), Istanbul (13 hours) and Ankara (10 hours). The bus station is 2km north of the city, and the dolmus stop is near Ulusal Egemenlik Bulvari.
 
Bus station Tel: (90 252) 412 3037.
 
By Air
 
The nearest airport is Dalaman, from which there are many international charter flights especially from Europe. It is over 100km and takes 2 hours by bus, and there are regular bus services between 07.30 – 22.00.
 
Dalaman Airport Tel: (90 252) 792 5291.
 
By Boat
 
Hydrofoils leave daily for Rhodes at 0915 in the summer. There are motorboats three times a week in the summer, and Greek ferries, some of which can carry cars.
 
 Where to Visit
 
MarmarisCastle
 
Thought to have been constructed by the Ionians, this small castle on the hill was repaired during the time of Alexander the Great. It was widened and repaired again by Suleyman the Magnificent 1522, during which time his 200,000 troops attacked and seized the island of Rhodes.
 
The castle opened as a museum in 1991, after restorations that took ten years. It has seven galleries, and has a collection of archaeological, historical, ethnographic and nautical exhibits. The views of the city are wonderful, with a wonderful panorama day and night.
 
MarmarisMuseum
 
Marmaris Castle is nationalized on 1979, and restored between 1980 and 1990. Marmaris Museum, is facilitated within Marmaris Castle, and opened for visitors officially on 18th May, 1991. There are seven galleries within castle, two of these are used as warehouses. One gallery is Archeological pieces of arts hall. Third gallery, which is ethnographic hall is organized as Turk house. Fourth gallery is organized as the room of Castle Commander. There is also an exhibition hall within the museum.
 
Taşhan and KemerliBridge
 
The bridge, 10km along the Mugla road in the Iskelebasi region, was constructed by Suleyman the Magnificent, and has arched bridges built from stone and brick.
 
ANCIENT CITIES
 
Physkos
 
It is possible to see the ruins at Physkos, an important harbour city of the ancient Caria region, on the Asar hill north of Marmaris. The old city walls dating back to the Hellenistic period are still fairly intact.
 
Loryma (Bozukkale)
 
The ruins at Loryma, once part of the foundations of Rhodes, was founded originally in the region known as Oplosica (artillery smith), the waterside thicket on the southwest of the Bozburun peninsula 40km from Marmaris. The most impressive structure in the settlement area is the well-preserved reinforcement at the entrance of the bay at Burunbasi. Nine rectangular towers, made from smooth rock-cut masonry, are built at the edge of Rhodes (Rodos) island. Today, only the balcony tower at the northern end can still be seen.
 
Amos
 
The ancient ruins of Amos are accessible from the Asarcik hill, northwest of Kumlubuk bay. Amos dates back to the Hellenistic period, and is composed of a hillside amphitheatre, a temple and statue pedestals. Surrounded by ramparts dating back to the same time, this amphitheatre is in good condition, with its seating area, side walls and stage with three chambers. Excavations in 1948 by Prof. Bean revealed four inscriptions, which mentioned three rental contracts, thought to date back to around 200BC. There is a minibus running from Turunc to Kumlubuku which passes through Amos.
 
Cedrae (Cleopatra or CityIslands)
 
The ancient ruins of Cedrae in the island of Saray, date back to the Hellenistic Roman era. What is known as the City Islands is comprised of Orta Island and Kucuk Island. The remains of the ramparts can be easily seen from the distance.
 
The island took its name from the rumour that Cleopatra swam with the locals in a small bay at the northwest of the island. Furthermore, she was supposed to have entered the sea with Mark Anthony, the sands of which were transferred from Northern Africa via ships by Anthony – which may be true as this type of sand is only seen in Egypt.
 
The remains of buildings surrounded by ramparts on the east of Saray island date back from the Roman and Hellenistic period, and the small amphitheatre is in the best condition. The Christian Basilica was constructed over the pedestals of the Apollo Temple, belonging to Dors. There is an Agora on the west of Saray with inscriptions suggesting that athletics festivals devoted to Apollo were organised in the region. There are Necropolis ruins at Kucuk Island, as well as column reliefs.
 
Hydas
 
The rampart ruins dating back to the Hellenistic era lie in Hydas, 35km from Marmaris along the Erine-Bybassios road, with a square planned monument to the south.
 
There are rampart ruins, remaining from Hellenistic Era in Hydas, 35 km. away from Marmaris on Erine - Bybassios road route, and a square planned monument, at south of these ruins. There are several tombs around a watchtower, 3 km from Hydas. The ancient region of Hydas was founded in the Selimiye bay (Kamisli Bay) north of the Bozburun peninsula.
 
Erine
 
The ruins of Erine are 3km from the Hisaronu village, 20km southwest of Marmaris, and date back to the Hellenistic and Roman period.
 
Castabus (Pazarlık)
 
Near the village of Hisarlik are the ancient ruins of Pazarlik, a holy site which can be reached from Mount Eren with an hour’s climb from Hisaronu plains. The temple is on a purpose-built platform dating back to 4th century BC. Apart from the Temple, only the ruined amphitheatre in the south can be defined.
 
Saranda (Söğüt)
 
Near the village of Sogut, 45 km of Marmaris, Saranda still has the characteristics of being a continuous settlement during the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantium periods, the latter of which clearly has remains today.
 
Bybassios
 
What remains of the ancient city of Bybassios can be seen in the village of Orhaniye, on the Erine road towards Bozburun, southwest of Marmaris. The ruins of the ramparts are found inside the forest.
 
Euthenna (Altınsivrisi)
 
The reinforced ramparts surrounding the settlement area, in the west part of the Cedrai-Marmaris line, are in very good condition. There is also the extension of an ancient wharf. The ruins can be reached along the Karacasogut road.
 
MAUSOLEUMS and MOSQUES
 
Sarıana Mausoleum
 
The mausoleum, in the district of Sariana, has a bird's eye view of the city and has a new mosque adjacent to it. Before the Rodos expedition, it was here that Kanuni had visited Fatma Ana (Sariana) who was famous for her predictions,. After she gave him a positive response, he commenced the siege. Before his departure from Marmaris, thousands of Ottoman soldiers left on their journey after a nourishing breakfast of the milk from Sariana's cow.
 
İbrahim Ağa Mosque
 
Constructed by Ibrahim Aga in 1789 in the Kemeralti district, its most striking architectural feature is the huge dome.
 
BEACHES and PROMENADES
 
CennetIsland
 
The peninsular island of Cennet, a 30 minute boat journey, is covered with forest and has accommodation and restaurants. It is a popular stop for cruise and tour boats throughout the season, as is suitable for swimming and eating.
 
Fosforlu Cavern
 
This natural cavern is a popular stopping point for sailing tours going on to Turunc and Kumlubuk, offering clean, green waters ideal for swimming.
 
Mineral Spring
 
Famed for its drinking water which used to be considered good for the digestive system, the Sultaniye Kaplicalari thermal springs and mud baths lie 10km from the province, close to Dalyan. It is a popular area, with beach and facilities for tourists, and can be reached via boat or road from Koycegiz or Dalyan.
 
Turunç
 
Once a tiny farming and fishing village, Turunc has developed since the late 1980s into an upmarket tourist resort, with hotels, villas and restaurants. The village, on the east coast of the Hisaronu peninsula, is 21km from Marmaris and accessible by road and sea. Its main attraction for Turkish and foreign tourists is its stunning location, and 500m beach of course sand with a backdrop of pine-tufted cliffs.
 
Kumlubük
 
The village, 6km by road from Turunc, is also accessible by boat from Marmaris and boasts a large beach which is one of the best in the area. The water is clean, and there are good facilities nearby.
 
Çiftlik
 
The bay of Ciftlik is accessible via a two hour boat journey from Icmeler. This once-isolated village and beach is now being developed for tourism, with a holiday village and hotels. It is especially favoured by sailors as a good spot for their yachts, and its course-grained sands and waterside restaurants are increasingly popular. The village has a small island within the bay, is also a favourite with jeep-faring safari tourists.
 
Turgut (Waterfall)
 
The 10-metre high waterfall is 35km from Marmaris and accessible from Turgut village via a 15-minute trek.
 
Bozburun
 
Best known and utilised for its yacht harbour, boat-building and repairs, the village of Bozburun has a stunning setting and is also famous for pine, flower and thyme honey. Its isolated location and peaceful atmosphere has attracted people escaping city life, and is especially popular with Turkish tourists. There are buses from Marmaris, 50km away, which makes a pleasant day trip, and there are many interesting walks in the surrounding countryside. Although there are no proper beaches, it is possible to swim off the rocks. There is a revered 1000-year old tree, one of the oldest in the country. The village gets more crowded during the International Bozburun Gullet Festival, 26 – 28 October.
 
Günnücek
 
The Gunluk Forest, with rarely seen species of plants, is 2km from Marmaris. Sigla oil, which is collected from the trees, is used in the pharmaceutical and perfume industry. The area is a natural promenade, with shallow waters.
 
YalancıStrait
 
This land, which is 8 km. away from province, had gained its "Counterfeit Strait" name after a ship captain who supposed here the strait which goes to bay at a stormy weather, ground of his ship. You should absolutely see this region, where there are wooden built Gulet shipyards.
 
YACHTING
 
A natural harbour, Marmaris Bay has three marinas with 1100 capacity, and nine yacht yards with 1200 capacity. Various festivals are organised in order to develop yacht tourism in the region, and the town is the focal point of Blue Voyages. The main activities are the International Yacht Festival during the second week of May, and the week-long International Marmaris Yacht Races at the end of October.
 What to Eat
 
Famous dishes in the Marmaris region include surah, meat stuffed with rice, tarhana (soup made from dried yoghurt and tomato), and the local ice-cream. Many of these special dishes are eaten around Hiderellez, the Spring Feast.
 
 What to Buy
 
Embroidery is one of the best local handicrafts in the area, made by the women and widely available. Copper and wooden decorations, jewellery and regionally designed clothes are sold in the shops along the harbour and inside the castle. One of the best places to buy the famous jam and honey is at the Friday Market, on the west side of town near the waterfront.
 
 Don't Leave Without
 
Jumping on board the Blue Tour, and exploring the coast;
 
Visiting Marmaris's beautiful outlying regions of Turuncu, Cennet Island, Bozburun, Turgut Şelalesi, Yalancı Strait and Günnüce;
 
Learning about the history, and enjoying the views from Marmaris Museum;
 
Feasting on Marmaris tarhana, sura and ice-cream;
 
Wandering around the ruins of the ancient cities.
 
 Contact Information
 
Tourism Information Office: (+90 252) 412 10 35 - 412 72 77
 
Hospital: (+90 252) 412 10 29
 
Harbor Directorate: (+90 252) 412 10 13
 
Customs Directorate: (+90 252) 412 03 54
 
Marmaris International Yacht Club:
 
Address: PO Box 132, Marmaris 48700
Tel: (+90 252) 412 38 35
 
Chamber of Maritime Commerce:
 
Address: Kordan Caddesi
Tel: (+90 252) 413 45 61
Fax: (+90 252) 413 4563
 
MİLAS
 
Milas of Muğla city, is a tourism borough, which is valuable to see with its beaches, lakes, antic cities, Turkish and Islamic pieces of arts. 
 
History
 
One of the most important cities of Karya, antic Mylasa, has taken its name from Mylasos, who is coming from the Aiolos generation, who is the reign of winds and resides within Aiolia Island in Mediterranean according to mythology. "asa" suffix of Mylasa name, is showing that Milas is founded at very ancient times (3.000 B. C.).
Alexander the Great, who had begun his Asia expedition on 334 B.C., had conquered South - West Anatolia and of course Milas, and just after conquer he had given his conquered lands to Karya Queen Ada.
 
Mylasa had arbitrated to a class contradiction with the request of Roman Emperor, Macmilius, on 143 B. C., and after this date, become the center of Roman Governors leading courts. During Byzantium period, Milas become bishop center, then conquered by Seljukian, Menteşeoğulları and Ottomans.
 
Climate
 
Milas, which is at south west of our country, is surrounded by Bodrum - Mandalya Bay, Lake Bafa and Gökova Bay. As a result of this, it has a long coastal line. Temperature rarely decreases under 0 C in Milas, where summers are passing hot and dry, and winters are warm and rainy.
 
 How to Get
 
Road
 
Due to its position, Milas is the break point of bus voyages, made to Bodrum from other city and provinces. There is also a minibus connection between Milas - Güllük - Bodrum - Yatağan - Muğla. Transportation to terminal is made via minibus, service vehicles, etc.
 
Airway
 
Nearest airport is Bodrum Airport. Transportation to airport is made by HAVAŞ services from province center.
 
 Where to Visit
 
Traditional Milas Houses
 
Most of the Milas houses are from 19th century. All houses generally have an irregular big or small courtyard. Upper floors of two floor houses are exceeds to street like balconies. There is absolutely a floor furnace within each Milas houses. Shafts are also an exceptional architectural samples. External walls and garden walls of the houses are painted with whitewash. On the İzmir exit of province at Burgaz District, Abdülaziz Ağalar Villa is still standing and its masonry sample composing consoles are attractive.
 
Milas Museum
 
Pieces of arts, founded during archeological excavations made within ruins within the province territories, are exhibiting in museum, which is opened on 1987. Also purchase way gained very beautiful glass pieces of arts as well as various kinds of soil pots and pans, which are till to the Bronze Era, are valuable to see. Rock pieces of arts are also exhibiting within the garden of museum. There is an open air museum, known as "Fish Bazaar" in Kıyıkışlacık Köyü - Iassos which are administratively bind to Milas Museum. Rock pieces of arts excavated from Fassos are exhibiting.
 
ANCIENT CITIES
 
Iassos
 
It is on a peninsula against Güllük in Mandalya Bay.There are big rampart, aqueducts, theater within the city, extending till 3000s B. C. 18 km. after Köşk village junction of Milas - Söke road, you will reach to city and sea. Also it is advantageous to remember that a visit to be made via sea transport from Güllük, will be unforgettable. Antic harbor of the city is the resort place of yachting persons today.
 
Labranda (Koca Plateau)
 
You can reach to Labranda, founded on a terrace on Mount Çomak, at 18 km. north - east of Milas, with a stabilized road from Milas. Wanderers can see upholstery signs from place to place on the 8 m. wide road, beginning from Mylasa during antic era, today. First excavations in Labranda, whose ruins are largely preserved, are commenced on 1940. It is famous with Zeus Labrandus temple, constructed during Satraplas period in Karya on 4th century B. C.
 
Keramos
 
It is at the today's Ören borough, North coast of Gökova bay, and it is 50 km. away from Milas. Defense walls, rock graves at feet of mountain, tombs at necropolis from the city, which took its name Keramos, which means "Pot" or "Ceramic" in Greek language are the important ruins which reached till today. It is one of the most attractive ruin places of tourists, participated to Blue Voyage, made in Gökova bay, begun from Bodrum.
 
Herakleia
 
City is founded at the coast of Bafa Lake at the south feet of Beşparmak Mountains. It has supported 6,5 km. long rampart walls with 65 towers on a very rough grounds and rocks. There are Athena Temple, Agora, City Assembly Building, Theater and a hamam in the city, constructed during Hellenistic Era.
 
Bargylia
 
It is founded within a bay, extended through land at south of Güllük Harbor within Mandalya Bay. Bargylia, at the 30th km. of Milas - Bodrum road, is founded by Bellere Phon, one of the Greek Myth heroes. At the twin peeks of this hill, Roman and Greek at north and at the other areas Byzantium Era pieces of arts are present.
 
Beçin
 
It is founded on a steep rock at 200 m. height at approximately 5 km. south of Milas. Name of the city is passed as "Pezona" in Medieval Italian sources, and "Berçin", "Peçin" and "Beçin" in Turk - Islam sources. Structure ruins, reached today from city are dense at Kenez and Sığmen, ramparts and external castle surrounded by ramparts, internal castle looking to Milas plains.
 
Zeus Karios Temple
 
It is in the Hisarbaşı District. It is constructed on a 3.5 m. high podium at east of Hisarbaşı hill. Only a column at corinth order, named as Yuva today is standing.
 
Gümüş Kesen Monument
 
Probably IInd century A. D. dated this monument is composed of a cover gradually narrowed like pyramid, supported by columns and grades on this chamber and a rectangular grave chamber.
 
Sinuri Temple
 
There is a temple ruins, which belongs to god Sinuri, preserving an old Kar name on a hill over today's Kalınağıl village at 14 km. east of Milas.
 
Sinuri priest had remained within a family passing from father to son after 4th century B. C. A great bairam is made Per year, and cows are sacrificed. As well as it is not known that how god is described, but it is understood that it holds a double faced axe in his hands. Sinuri Temple is turned into church during Christianity period.
 
LAKES, BEACHES
 
Lake Bafa
 
There is Lake Bafa, which is the mirror of Lunar Goddess Athena between oil groves, on Söke - Milas road. Lake is just like a mirror including moon within summer nights with its small white beaches and small resort places at the coast. It is recommended to eat the grey mullet and yılan balığı.
Güllük
 
This bay, famous with its fish egg and natural beaches within olive grove 25 km. away from Milas is also appropriate for yachting.
 
Ören It is 49 km. away from Milas, and can be reached with passing within high pine forests. Gökova bay, is an ancient settlement center and decorated with citrus gardens at the place where sea descended of bay north high mountains.
 
Beypınarı
 
It is at the place, where passenger coffeehouses are present within high pine forests on Milas - Yatağan road. It is famous with its chicken roast and ice like water fountain under cool trees. Akbük (Güllük Bay) and Kazıklı Bay are the places to mention within the Bay coastal line.
 
MOSQUES, MAUSOLEUMS
 
Firuz Bey Mosque
 
It is at the center, Firuz Paşa District, and constructed by Menteşe Governor, Hoca Firuz Bey on 1394 (H. 787). It is surrounded by theology school rooms (within garden). It is one of the first and most beautiful samples of Ottoman architecture.
 
Belen Mosque
 
It is probably 14th century structure, and on the Hisarbaşı hill at the center of the city. Its minaret is constructed by Abdülfettahoğlu Ömer Ağa on 1811.
 
Ulu Mosque
 
It is in the Hocabedrettin District. It is constructed on 1376 (H.780). It is the biggest mosque of the Milas. Hacı İlyas Mosque, Ağa Mosque, Orhan Bey Mosque, Yelli Mosque, Abdülfettah Ağa Mosque are the mosques valuable to see in Milas other than these.
 
Mausoleums
 
Abdülaziz Ağalar Mausoleum, Ahmet Gazi Mausoleum, Buharalı Bedrettin Mausoleum and Şeyh Dede Mausoleum are the first mausoleums valuable to see in Milas.
 
Ahmet Gazi Theology School
 
According to the inscriptions, it is constructed on 1375, by Menteşe Ruler, Tacettin Ahmet Gazi. Main courtyard of the theology school is a visiting place, which is assumed as holy by natives.
 
TURKISH BATHS and CARAVANSERAIS
 
Çöllüoğlu Inn, Kızıl Inn, Abdülfettah Ağa Inn and Big Hamam and Bey Hamam in Milas are the pieces of arts which are valuable to see.
 
 What to Eat
 
Yılan balığı and labranda water are the main regional foods of Milas.
 
 What to Buy
 
Milas carpet, handcrafts are the souvenirs that can be bought from the region.
 
 Don't Leave Without
 
Visiting Milas Museum, Zeus Temple, Gümüşkesen Monument,
 
Seeing Çöllüoğlu Inn,
 
Buying Milas Carpet,
 
Going to Iassos,
 
Eating fish in Tuzla (Bargilya), drinking Labranda water and eating yılan balığı in lassos.
 
Central Muğla Museum : At the Turollan Park section of the museum, fossils discovered and excavated from three fossil beds located at the northern skirts of Kaklıca Hill which is approximately 1 km. northeast of Özlüce Village are exhibited.
 
The findings discovered from the Yatağan - Stratonikeia Ancient city are also exhibited in the museum.
 
MUĞLA MUSEUM AND HISTORICAL RUINS
 
Muğla Museum is in the old prison building that is behind the courthouse. At the end of 1992, as the result of the excavations made in Özlüce Village Kaklıcatepe, many animal and plant fossils have been found. With the start of the exhibition of these fossils in 1994, the museum has been opened for visit.
 
The fossils being exhibited in Muğla Museum belongs to the living creatures that lived 5 - 9 million years before. These creatures have lived on a wide area from Eastern Asia to Spain. The fossils of the creatures of this period have been found in Tervel Basin of Spain, therefore this period is called as Turolian.
 
In the excavations, fossils of giraffe family, horned creatures, rhinoceros family, hosed mammals, pig family, horse family and carnivorous and many kind of plants. A part of these fossils are exhibited in the natural history part of the museum.
 
Another part open for visit in Muğla Museum is the ethnography section. Clothes and daily use tools from various parts of Muğla are being exhibited in this section.
 
Stratonikeia
The archaic city Stratonikeia is in the borders of Eskihisar Village on Yatağan - Milas highway that is 6 - 7 km western of Yatağan District of Muğla.
 
The city has been established in the 3rd century BC. Syrian King 1st Seleukos gave his wife Stratonike to his son Antiokhos. Antiokhos has established a city in the name of Stratonike, who was first his step mother, and then his wife.
 
In accordance with Strabon, who is a traveler and a writer, the city was full of very beautiful buildings. From the coins obtained in the excavations made, it is understood that Stratonikeia coins are minted since the date of its gaining its independency from Rhodes in 167 BC and continued until the Gallienus period (253 - 268 AD).
 
The acropolis of the city is at the top of the mountain in the south. This top is surrounded with a wall. In its north, on a terrace on the slope, on an inscription just below the highway of today, the ruins of a small temple constructed for the emperor can be seen.
 
There is a theater below this temple. Here, cavea is divided into 9 cuneusas with stairs and there is a single diazoma. The remainders of the stage building have been exposed to a great extent in the excavations made. Over the archaic city, Eskihisar Village, which is left today, is located. The city is surrounded with walls and today, only unimportant projections of the city walls can be seen. In the northeastern corner of the settlement area, lies the ruins of a strong fort made of cut stones and lime mortar. From the inscription stones and column bodies taken from other buildings, it is understood that the building has been repaired.
 
The main entrance door in the north of the city consists of large blocks. It is made with wide and fine masonry. The ruins show that there was an arch on that door. The door has two entrances. There is a nymphaion between the two door entrances. After the door, an area with columns and a road is seen.
 
At the middle of the city, the most significant building, bouleuterion where the city assembly meets, is located. The door standing alone just in the west of this building is the entrance door of the area. This was claimed to be Serapis Temple; but the inscriptions found in the excavations have shown that this thought was wrong. On the external wall of Bouleuterion towards north, the price list of Diocletianus and the introduction part relating to the application of it are written in Latin. The seats of this building in the lower part are protected.
 
In the western part of the city, the building named gymnasion, where the young people were trained in intellectual and physical aspects and made sports activities in Ancient Greek and Rome, exists.
 
There are chamber graves at the side of the holy road in front of the entrance door of the city. The holy road starting from the entrance door passes through necropolis and reaches to Hekate holy area in Lagina. This necropolis area has disappeared today remaining under coal mine basin.
 
Lagina
Lagina Hekate holy area is in the borders of Turgut Area of Yatağan District of Muğla. Lagina ruins are reached by going 9 km on the asphalt road that separates to right near the Thermal plant. The fame of Lagina holy area, which was an important cult center of Karia, has reached today and this area is now called as Lenye.
 
The last researches have shown that the region has an uninterrupted settlement since ancient Bronze Age (3000 BC) until today. Seleukos kings have made Lagina holy area a religion center and Stratonikeia city, which is 11 km there a political center.
 
In accordance with the information we obtained from the inscriptions that are still existent on Stratonikeia bouleuterion walls of Lagina, these two cities have been connected to each other via a holy road.
 
In Lagina holy area, propylon (monumental entrance door), holy road, altar, periobolos (wall surrounding the holy area), Doric Stoas and Hekate temple are located.
 
The holy area is also surrounded by walls that are still standing up to 2 m height forming the back wall of the Stoas. The monumental entrance door having three entrances and an apsis carried by four Ionian columns is connected to the Stoa via a door.
 
There are 10 stair series connected to the stone laid road going to altar from the monumental entrance door. The temple surrounded by five stair series and based on a platform that has a single series of columns having Korinth heads and Attic Ion aisles, is in the middle of the holy area. The temple is constructed in pseudo dipteros plan, with 8 x 11 columns in Korinth style. There are two Ionian columns in Pronaos part.
 
The archeological excavations carried out in Lagina holy area are important in terms of their being the first archeological excavations carried out by Turkish scientists. These excavations have been carried out by Osman Hamdi Bey and Halit Ethem Bey. In 1993, the archeological excavation and restoration works have been re - started under the control of Muğla Museum Directorate and consultancy of Architect Archeologist Ahmet Tırpan.
 
The friezes of the temple have been taken to İstanbul Archeology Museum by Osman Hamdi Bey and they are being exhibited in the same museum. The friezes have four different themes. (In east; scenes relating to the life of Zeus; in west; the war of the gods and gigants; in south Karia meeting of the gods; in north, war of Amazons)
 
Sedir Island
Sedir Island (Kedriai ancient city), that is in the borders of Ula district, in Gökova Gulf, with its archeological natural structure, is one of the parts of the region, where cultural tourism is very dense. Transportation to Sedir Island is provided via boats from Gökova - Akyaka Area or from Çamlıköy.
 
A great number of towers and walls made of smooth cut stone, Apollo temple and the church that is made later in its place, the well - protected theater that is still standing, agora and the ancient harbor ruins of Sedir Island are places that are worth seeing.
 
Open hours to visit: 8.30 - 18.00 Open days to visit: Everyday except Sundays
 
Bodrum Museum
 
Bodrum Castle was established between two harbours, on a rocky peninsula surrounded with sea at three sides. It is attached to land from the northern side. The castle has a rectangular plan. Its dimensions are 180 x 185 meters. Its highest place is French towers of which height above sea level is 47,50 meters. Other than French tower, there are four more towers including English, Italian, German and Yılanlı towers. The areas of the castle at outer side of the eastern wall are reinforced with double castle wall. The chevaliers strengthened the ramparts at land side and did not do the same for sea ramparts as they believed that they would be able to avoid any attack from the sea side with their strong navy at sea.
 
In order to reach the inner castle, one should pass seven doors. The first door of the castle is at north - west corner. A ramp road should be passed near the police - station in order to reach the door. At the beginning of the ramp, the door stands at the back of the slope. Thus, the door is protected from direct firing of guns. There is a Greek inscription on marble door lento. Jacques Gatineau, who acted as the commander in the castle between 1512 - 1513, warned with this inscription that the people who made espionage in the castle would be punished. And this shows that the chevaliers did not trust the people of the city.
 
There is a part we called northern ditch when entered through inside. And there is a triple armorial bearing group at the inner side of the door.
 
There are 249 armorial bearings on the walls of Bodrum castle. In addition, 16 armorial bearings are being exhibited in the garden of the museum. These armorial bearing are generally similar to each other. It is unknown to whom these bearings belong to, as the paints of these bearings, of which originals are painted, have disappeared.
 
There are crosses, vertical and horizontal bands, dragon and lion figures on the armorial bearings. There are traces of the paints on some of the armorial bearings located on castle towers. Colour traces are seen on St. Katerin embossment, on the way looking towards French tower, at eastern wall, on the flag at north - east upper corner of French tower.
 
The armorial bearing at the middle of the triple armorial bearing group located at the inner side of the 1st door of the castle belongs to Jacques Gatineau, the commander of the castle. The Latin script below the armorial bearings says: "Belief shall be protected here by Gatineau on behalf of Catholic Church". The lion on the door lento, at the left side of this armorial bearing group belongs to Hellenistic Period.
 
There is a passage from the wooden bridge, of which original is armorial bearing bridge, to the inclined stone road. Inside of the ditch was partially being filled of water before the construction of the harbor. The aggregate wall at right side was made when the castle was used as a prison. The building, which has thick walls and inclined roof, is a place for protection of the guns. The ditch was made for protection against the attacks to come from east in 1913, as it is understood from the armorial bearings on it. The gun slits are being seen through ditch and harbor direction. They are close to the sea level in order to be able to fire to the water section of the ships to enter to the harbor.
 
Today, the northern ditch is used as an area where the Bodrum Festival and theatre plays are being held. The grave seen behind the ditch, at the back of the sitting places belongs to Rome Period.
 
At the top of the 2nd door, there is a triple armorial bearing group on which there is a crowned eagle. There is a single armorial bearing at the left side of the triple armorial bearing group. An unused door exists at left side of this door. And there are two armorial bearings on the door. You may reach to the courtyard after passing the 2nd door. There is a harbor tower at one side of the courtyard looking towards the sea. The entrance of gun protection area is also located here. There is a Greek inscription on the door lento concerning the emperor Hadrianus. The gun protection area is still being used as an art gallery.
 
The 3rd door is a well-protected door. There are door gate and oil holes in the wall for iron plate movable for up and down directions. Two armorial bearings exist at left side of the 3rd door. There are armorial bearings of the dervish and Guy de Blanchfort (1512 - 1513) at right side. It unknown to which chevalier the below crossed armorial bearing belonged.
 
One may reach to the western ditch after passing this door. All of the green stones seen on the castle walls at right were brought from Mausoleion. There is a statue of Roman commander in the niche of the harbor tower, at opposite side of the 4th door. Such statute bodies were widespread. Their heads were being made separately and when a new commander came, the head of the old commander was being taken from the body and replaced with the new commander's head.
 
The 4th door opens to a vault having stairs. There are four armorial bearings on this door. When you pass through the tree - lined road in the western ditch, instead of climbing upstairs from the 4th door, you may see altars, tombs and various works collected from Halikarnassos and its environs. The stone wall beginning from the cistern at left belongs to Turkish Castle built in the middle of XIV. Century. Later, the chevaliers raised the walls with Mausoleion's stones and enlarged the castle. The chevaliers did not use the ditches as transportation way; they used to reach the inner castle by means of suspension bridges. The pillar of the suspension bridge made of Mausoleion's green stones can bee seen on the southern wall. The wall at both sides of the pillar was built when the castle was used as a prison. The stone stairs at the end of the ditch was also added to the castle later. The embossment on the wall at right side of the stairs shows Saint George killing a dragon. The original place of this embossment is not here. It is brought from the inner castle, from the northern wall of Italian tower. There are three armorial bearings below Saint George figure. When you climb the stairs, you see the cross and united armorial bearing of Piere d'Aubusson at the middle of the door. He worked as üstad-ı azam (the chief master) in Rhodes between 1476 and 1503. He visited Bodrum Castle many times. He was awarded by the pope with the rank of cardinal helmet as he imprisoned Cem Sultan who took refuge of him. The tasselled cardinal helmet is seen on the armorial bearing. The armorial bearing is a two-sided red cross on yellow ground. There are two more armorial bearings other than this.
 
The small tower at right side beyond the door is the control tower of suspension bridge. There is the monogram of II. Mahmut on the outer wall surface of this tower. Reckoned from the Hegira 1235 is written on this monogram. This monogram is written on a chevalier armorial bearing, as it is understood from the Malta cross.
 
In order to enter the inner castle, you should turn back and follow the narrow road. There is an armorial bearing on a high place, on the castle wall at left side. A photograph related with this armorial bearing is being exhibited from the loopholes, which are closed later.
 
The Latin inscription on the 5th door says "My Master protect us while sleeping and rescue while awake. Nobody can protect us without your protection". There is a triple armorial bearing group below the inscription. You may reach to the southern side of the castle, when you pass this door. There are two castle walls here. Two tombs are located across the 7th door, used as drinking basin before. There is a triple armorial bearing group on 7th floor.
 
You may enter to the inner castle by means of a vaulted corridor. There is a cistern under this corridor. The previous armorial bearing group was embroidered on the entrance of the inner castle. There are 14 cisterns in the inner castle and under the chapel. The necessary water was obtained from these cisterns when the castle was besieged. Some of these cisterns are still being used.
 
It is possible to see all trees and flowers of archaic world and the region in the inner courtyard. One of these trees is bay - tree. (Daphne in Greek and Laurus in Latin language). The tree known as oleander in Anatolia ornaments the castle with its flowers and leaves which do not fall in summer and winter. There are plane trees in the middle of the courtyard of which shadows are found healthy by the kings and aristocrats. Among the trees grown in the region, there are olive trees which carry great importance in archaic world and myrtles which are used in many ceremonies. Myrtle was the holy tree of Aphrodite. Pigeon among the birds and rose among the flowers were vowed to Aphrodite. To meet with the salutation of pigeons and to smell the roses may remind Aphrodite to the visitors of the castle. Mandrake is a plan being exhausted. For this reason, this plant is being grown in the castle with a great care. This plant is known to be used for anesthesia. It is possible to see any kind of flower and trees suitable for Mediterranean climate including silk cloves blooming the most beautiful purple in summer, geranium with various colors, various cactuses, begonias and Cyprus acacia, pines, pomegranate trees and mulberry trees.
 
 Bronze Age Shipwrecks
 
The hall consists of three sections. Just inside the entry, finds from the Cape Gelidonya (late 13 th century BC) and Şeytan Deresi (16 th Century B.C) shipwrecks are exhibited.
 
On the left side of this room are artifacts gathered by the first scientific shipwreck excavation in the world, at Cape Gelidonya. The site of the wreck was shown to the archaologists by Captain Kemal Aras, a Bodrum sponge boat owner. The shipwreck was excavated in 1960 under the direction of George F.Bass.
 
This was a Syrian merchant's trading vessel. The artifacts excavated from the wreck shed light on the international relations of the period.
 
With the copper ingots loaded in Cyprus, the vessel sank at Beşadalar (Five Islands), opposite Cape Gelidonya between Finike and Antalya.
 
Captain's Log Book;
 

 
By following the land, we are heading for Cape Gelidonya on the Anatolian shore, watching the west current and the wind. In a few hours we will reach Phoenikus (Finike) and get some drinking water. We have to pass first through Beş Adalar (Five Islands), which is a very dangerous place for sailors."
 
As the ship passed between the two islands nearest the mainland, due to the strong current it hit the pinnacle of rock that nears the surface of the sea. The vessel sant to a depth of 26-28 meters, and Cape Gelidonya became the grave of one more vessel.
 
The large jars (pithoi) and amphoras at the right side of the first room were shown to the Institute of Nautical Archaeology (I.N.A) by sponge diver Cumhur İlik. The wreck was excavated in 1975 by the I.N.A. team of Prof. Dr. George F. Bass, who dates the pottery to the 16 th century BC.
 
Captain's Log Book;
 

 
In the second hall, the vessel that sank at Uluburun (Great Cape) is shown at harbor. The remains of the ship are shown under water as they were found. This wreck was discovered in 1982 by Mehmet Çakır, a sponge diver from Bodrum. The scientific investigation of the wreck was begun in October 1982 by a team led by Bodrum Museum Director T. Oğuz Alpözen.
 
The site was excavated between 1984 and 1994, first by Dr. George F. Bass and then by Dr. Cemal Pulak, for the Institute of Nautical Archaeology at Texas A&M Universty.
 
Captain's Log Book;
 

 

 
After leaving the coast of Syria behind us, we sail westward to Cyprus for additional cargo. Porters brought on board 365 ingots of pure copper, smelted from the ore of the island's famed mines. In all the weigh ten tons.
 

 
I have enstrusted the safety of our voyage to our own patron goddess. We carry her gold-covered bronze figure at the bow of the ship. In celebrating her magnificence, my crew dance to the sound of the bronze cymbals, ivory trumpet, and lutes of tortoise-shell we carry.
 
We stop for the night at the entrance to the huge bay that cuts into the land where the Hittites live. We will hug the coast of the bay till we round the southern-most point of this land. But now some of my sailors are putting out their fishing nets. The Mycenaean envoy who accompanies us pours wine from his own pitcher into his own cup. I will weigh carefully anything he sells with the animal-shaped weights I carry with me: one of them is the finest ever seen in my time.
 
Now the sun is rising and my men hoist the huge stone anchor that has held us firmly through the night. The wind is rising, but our stout hull, its cedar planks joined tightly together, will carry us safely through the waves. I do not fear pirates, as we are well armed with swords, daggers, spears, stone maces and bows and arrows.
 
Now we must round the southernmost protrusion of land, the Great Point, but the wind is suddenly coming from the south. My helmsman tries to turn us away from the sheer cliff ahead. We must furl our sail.
 
It is too late. We have struck the cliff. The ship and all on board are sinking in 33 fathoms of water. We have finally reached land, but it is not our original destination.
 
For bringing my cargo to you, I would like to thank the Institute of Nautical Archaeology (I.N.A) at Texas A&M University. I also wish to thank Minister of Culture, M.İstemihan Talay, the undersecretary, Fikret Nesip Üçcan, who asked a scenario to be written around the artifacts, the Director of the General Directorate of Monuments and Museums, Dr. Alpay Pasinli; and the Director of the Center of Administration of Circulating Capital Funds of the Ministry of Culture, Yemlihan Atalay. Welcome to all."
 
Marmaris Museum
 
Marmaris Archeology Museum gives service in a historical place, in Marmaris fort.
 
Herodotos has written that the first city walls in Marmaris were constructed in 3rd thousand BC. Physkos (Marmaris), which was a Karia city in that period, was a passage point between Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea, as it is today. The harbor of the city has kept its importance for ages with its trade routes opening to Rhodes and Egypt. Charles Texier, a 19th century researcher, has mentioned in this work of art of a fort dominating on Physkos Gulf, whose ruins were found at Fineks Mountains. It is known that the Great Alexander, who took over Marmaris in 334 BC has had the fort repaired because of its strategic importance.
 
The only written reference mentioning about the construction of Marmaris Fort that is located at a high point at the back of the Yacht Harbor, is the travel book of Evliya Çelebi. Evliya Çelebi, who visited Muğla and its surroundings in 17th century, says that Kanuni Sultan Süleyman has ordered the repair of the fort before his Rhodes campaign and that the fort was used as a base during the campaign. In the reference, it is said that the fort was constructed on the main rock having four emplacements, that there were 400 foot walls made of smooth stones, that there were one room for each of warden, imam, mosque caretaker and the guardians, and an inscription on the entrance door. In the work of art, where another history writer Celaloğlu Mustafa tells Marmaris days of Kanuni Sultan Süleyman and his army, the Rhodes campaign and their return to İstanbul, the fort is not mentioned.
 
Piri Reis, who wrote "Navy Book", does not indicate Marmaris Fort in his work of art, in which he tells Marmaris Harbor in detail, and in the map he drew. In the period between 1494 - 1520, during which Piri Reis drew other forts in Mediterranean and took notes for his book, the existence of a fort in Marmaris harbor was not recorded.
 
In the light of this information, there is another thought in relation with the date of construction of Marmaris Fort. In accordance with that thought, Kanuni Sultan Süleyman, who ascended the throne in 1520, has demanded the construction of the fort while returning from Rhodes Campaign. Hafıza Sultan caravansary is located at the entrance of the narrow street having steps which leads to the fort. The caravansary, which has a rectangular plan, has seven small and one big rooms and it is covered with arches. In the inscription at the entrance of this building, which is constructed in the same period with the fort, the date 1545 is read. This date supports the thought that the fort and the caravansary were constructed after the campaign, at the same time.
 
An important part of the fort has been destroyed in 1914 during the First World War with the cannon balls of a French destroyer. In the fort, which is used for settlement by Marmaris people beginning from the pre - Republic period until a recent date, there are 18 dwellings, one fountain and one cistern.
 
Marmaris Fort has been restored between the years 1980 - 1990 and has been opened to service as Marmaris Museum in 1991. It has seven closed places. The cradle vaulted entrance is opening to the inner garden. The stairs on the right and left of the courtyard provides access to the city walls. Two of the closed areas that are covered with cradle vault are arranged as archeology halls. In these halls and in the garden, the stone opuses collected in the region, amphora belonging to Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine Periods, candles, bottles, figurines made of cooked soil, various pots and glass opuses, arrow ends, coins and ornamental goods found in Knidos, Burgaz, Hisarönü excavations are being exhibited. In the ethnography hall, weavings, carpets, kilims, furniture, copper kitchen tools, guns and ornamental goods are exhibited. The places other than those halls are used as art gallery, office and depot.
 
The museum is open for visit between the hours 08:30 - 12:00 and 13:00 - 17.30 everyday except Mondays.
 
The museum personnel can be contacted from
 
Tel: (256) 412 14 59
Fax: (256) 412 17 46
 
Marmaris, which is surrounded by the sea in west and by the mountains in south, has been a preferable location in history because of this feature. From the written references, it is learnt that its archaic name was Physkos and had a special importance among the cities across Rhodes.
 
Marmaris and Datça Districts, controlled by Marmaris Archeology Museum, show an integrity in historical geography. There are many traces reflecting the history of the region since 3rd thousand BC until the end of Ottoman period. The prehistory of Marmaris district and Datça Peninsula is not completely known today. But, the region has been discovered and examined by the native and foreign travelers and scientists starting from the second half of 19th century.
 
Physkos, Amos, Erine, Kastabos, Saranda, Bybasslos, Tymnus, Gallipolis, Prynos, Hydas, Cennet Island, Kedreal, Keçi and Bedir Islands, Euthenna, Bayır - Gebekse, Pymos, Gavur Sancağı, Loryma, Kıran Gölü, Çubucak ceramic workshops, which are in the borders of Marmaris district, and Knidos, Bybassos, Trioplon, Burgaz residences which are in the borders of Datça District are a part of the land of Rhodes Union in Anatolia in archaic geography, that is they are the cross side of Rhodes. In the peninsula, besides those ruin places, there are many cultural values consisting of single buildings such as cistern, grave, fort, church, monastery, mill, oil house, etc.
 
In recent years, the region is being examined in detail by excavations and surface researches.
 
Loryma: Loryma archaic city is located on Karaburun, close to Taşlıca, Bozukkale. Transportation is provided via sea until Bozukkale harbor, after that a climbing for more than one hour is needed to the ruins.
 
It is an important center among the cities cross Rhodes in 4th century BC. In the archaic city, which has a big gulf, scientific surface researches have been commenced in 1995 under the direction of the German Archeologist Dr. Winferd Held.
 
Loryma, which is a small city, has been established in 7th century BC. It is surrounded with a two - stage wall dated to the Archaic and Classical periods. In the upper part of the city, lies the acropolis, which is also surrounded by a two - stage wall. The three cisterns above the acropolis and the base ruins belonging to a single building show that this area was used as shelter in case of danger. The narrow and long harbor fort controls the entrance of the gulf. The dwellings of Loryma are on terraces carefully made on the slope. "Artemis Sotaria" holy area is located in the plain that is in west of the city. In west of the gulf, the necropolis area longing towards north is beside the temple. In the plain that is in the south of the necropolis, Apollo holy area is located. Furthermore, the existence of an altar devoted to Zeus Atabyrios, the Rhodes God is known. This information shows that the city, which is at a strategic point in terms of the defense of Rhodes, was under the control of Rhodes. Three churches and many houses was built on Loryma acropolis, which was a navy base and gun storage in Byzantine Period, by using also the archaic period materials.
 
The city has been completely left after the Arabic invasion in 7th century AD.
 
Kıran Lake: Transportation via sea is possible to the residence located in southwestern of Marmaris near the dry lake having a diameter of 30 meters, which is a neighbor of Loryma harbor city. After the sea journey ending at Bozukkale harbor, the ruins are reached with a climb longing for two hours.
 
In 1995, as the result of the scientific researches carried out by Dr. Zeynep Kuban and Dr. Turgut Saner, the temple, whose altar has also been protected, theater buildings and five more building ruins, whose functions could not be determined yet, have been found. Furthermore, with these researches it can also be explained that blocks similar to stels could be placed in the holes that are seen on flat, large, rectangular blocks in addition to the pyramid graves having steps, special to the region. Another grave type seen in this area is the chamber graves made of large, block stones that are covered with cradle roof shaped covers.
 
The researchers say that the center might be used as meeting and cult center by the city groups paying tax to Attika Sea Union, which is thought to be located in Bozburun Peninsula.
 
Çubucak: "Rhodes commercial amphora production workshops" in Hisarönü Çubucak location are being searched by Ass. Prof. Dr. Ersin Doğer, who is a lecturer in Ege University, since 1990 via scientific excavations. It is known that, for approximately 250 years, (beginning of 3rd century BC - mid of 1st century BC) the commercial amphora of Rhodes city state were sealed with stamps bearing the name of the city and with the names of the Rhodes officers selected each year and gave their name to the year during which he was charged, and that the amphora that did not comply with the production standard were disposed. The amphora and their handles found, which were accumulated in the waste areas in layers by time, provide important results for the chronology of the term and for general chronology.
 
In the excavations, more than 2500 sealed amphora handles have been obtained. As the result of the examination carried out on these handles, it has been determined that the potter named Hieroteles made production for 70 years and that 6 more potters worked.
 
Burgaz: Burgaz ruin place is 2 km northeastern of Datça District Center. Burgaz ruin place, which was introduced to the science world for the first time by Bean and Cook, is thought to be the "Ancient Knidos City". Burgaz excavation works are performed since 1993 under the scientific direction of Ass. Prof. Dr. Numan Tuna.
 
The ruin place, which covers an area of approximately 1400 x 400 m lies along the seashore and is the most important center providing findings belonging to pre - Hellenistic Period. The city is surrounded with walls. In southwest of this area, tower and sea wall ruins are seen in shallow waters. The ruins of two harbors dated to 4th century BC can be observed from the seashore today.
 
As the result of the excavation works, it has been understood that Burgaz settlement existed since the geometric period, that it has been partially left in 4th century BC, but the storage and harbor loading at the seashore; and a life depending on agriculture and necropolis utilization at the inner parts went on.
 
Knidos: Knidos archaic city that is located between the archaic cities we mentioned herein above, at the end of Datça Peninsula, at the point where Aegean Sea and Mediterranean combines, on Tekir Cape is one of the most important ones among the Western Anatolia shore cities.
 
It is in the borders of Yazı Village of Datça District of Muğla Province. It is connected to Datça via highway with a 35 km road - the last 8 km of which is stabilized. Transportation via sea is made with excursion boats and yachts during the tourism season.
 
In the period during which the region was under the control of the Persians, approximately in 360 BC, Knidos people left their city near Datça District and established a new Knidos city in Hippadamos plan at the farthest point of the peninsula. Apollo Temple, which was the holy place of Rhodes state was there. Strabon (XIV 656, 2, 15) has written that this place was in the appearance of "double city" with its both land and island settlement. Knidos city, which was one of the important cities of Rhodes Union and which exported wine with its improved trade, is surrounded by a wall reinforced with round and cornered towers. It has two harbors, one military and one commercial. The important buildings and areas in the city are: B, C, D and E Churces, Dor Temple, Propylon, Apollo Temple and Altar, Round Temple and Altar, assembly building, Korinth Temple, Sun Clock, Dor Stoa, Theatre, Dionysos Temple and Stoa, Slope Houses, Odeon, Demeter Holy Area, Necropolis and Kap Krio Peninsula.
 
The history of the city, whose excavation works have been carried out by Sir Charles T. Newton between the years 1856 - 1857 and by Prof. Dr. Iris Cornelia Love between the years 1967 - 1997, is being re - lighted with the scientific archeological excavations being carried out under the direction of Prof. Dr. Ramazan Özgan since 1987. The works are continuing in the mainland on which the city is established and in Deve Boynu, that is Kap Krio Island.
 
The findings of the excavations show that the settlement goes back to 14th and 13th century BC. The condition of the city in 7th, 6th and 5th centuries was very bright. The city, which has shown development in economic, cultural and artistic fields, has opened a medicine school and has shown itself in science arena.
 
As other Anatolian shore cities, Knidos has also been invaded by the Arabs in 7th century AD and has completely been destroyed by the earthquakes that occurred thereafter.
 
Milas Museum
 
Milas Museum has been formed for the first time in 1983 with the approval of the Ministry, by gathering the opuses transferred from Bodrum Museum and the opuses obtained from the excavations in the district borders and has been opened for visitors in 1987. The Museum Directorate is in Milas Culture Center building. The Culture Center is built in a garden having a total surface area of 1556 m2 and the area of the building is approximately 400 m2. At the entrance floor of the building, the museum exhibition hall and administrative units are located.
 
In the basement, there are material depots, the opus depot of the Museum Directorate, photography room and laboratory. The garden is used as the open exhibition area of the museum. The movable culture values found in the archaic residence areas in Milas District Center and its surroundings are exhibited in the garden.
 
The golden opuses found in Stratonikeia excavations, cooked earth candle samples found in İasos excavations, the opuses found in the rescue excavations in and around Milas, marble sculptures, marble sculpture heads and other opuses purchased from the citizens are exhibited in a chronological sequence in the 11 showcases in the museum exhibition hall. As of June 1998, a total of 3737 inventory opuses in Milas Museum, 2615 of which are archeologic, 75 of which are ethnographic and 1047 of which are coins.
 
1- Gümüşkesen: Gümüşkesen, which is in Milas District center is a monumental grave constructed in the 2nd century AD.
 
2- Beçin: Beçin Fort, which is in the borders of Beçin Municipality that is 5 km to the district center, has been constructed over the ruins of archaic period, in Menteşe Principality period.
 
3- Labranda: Labranda ruin place that is 13 km to the District center is an important religion center in Karya Period. In Labranda, which takes its name from the double faced Snow axe labyris, archeological excavations are made by the Swedish since 1948.
 
4- Euromos: The most important ruin in Euromos ruin place that is 12 km to Milas - İzmir highway is Zeus Temple that is known as footed among public. Excavation and restoration works have been started around Zeus Temple in 1970s by Prof. Dr. Ümit Serdaroğlu, but these works were not continued later.
 
5- Heraklia: Heraklia ruin place that is in Kapıkırı Village at 40 km distance to the District center covers a very large area. Besides the Hellenistic Period buildings such as Athena Temple, Theater, Agora, city walls, Endymion, because of its being the center of episcopacy in the Byzantine period, there are many church ruins on the islands in Bafa Lake. Dr. Annelise Pejchlow from German Archeology Institute still continues surface researches in Herakleia ruin place.
 
6- Iasos: In Iasos archaic city that is in Kıyıkışlacık Village at a distance of 26 km to the District center, the excavation works that are being carried out by the Italian archeology commission since 1960 still continue under the direction of Dr. Fede Berti in and around the agora. Roman monumental grave that is one of the biggest buildings of the archaic city and that is known as Balıkpazarı among the public has been restored by Ministry of Culture and after its exhibition and arrangement by the Italian excavation team, it has been opened for visit in 1995 as open - air museum.
 
Labranda
Labranda, which is the holy area of Zeus Labraundos, is in ancient Karia (Southwestern Anatolia), 14 km northeastern of Mylasa city to which it is affiliated.
 
The most ancient findings belong to the year 600 BC. The area that has been used as holy area in 6th and 5th centuries and then as temple terrace consisted of a single, small, artificial terrace. A war took place in the holy area in 497 and Karia army has been defeated by the Persian army with its alliances.
 
4th century BC is the most important period of the temple. At the times of the satraps named Mausolos (377 - 352 BC) and Idrieus (351 - 344 BC), this place gained a new appearance. In 355, during the sacrifice festival in Labranda, Mausolos escaped from an assassination towards him at the last moment. Buildings such as a series of artificial terraces here, one or two entrance buildings, a small Dor building (probably a fountain building), monumental stairs, two large feast halls (androns), shed building (named as oikoi), Stoa and Zeus Temple surrounded with columns must be constructed after this event. With the death of Idrieus in 344, such works have been stopped. Because of the big fire disaster that took place in 4th century BC, the holy area has lost its feature of being a cult place.
 
The excavation works here have been started in 1948 by A.W.Persson and are continuing with intervals since that time. The current excavations are being executed by P. Hellström.
 
The access from Mylasa to the holy area had been provided via the holy road having a width of 8 m. The laying traces on this road can be seen even today. Access to the area had been provided with one of the two entrance buildings (propylon). These were impressive passage doors made of Milas marble, having two columns and Ionian frontons on each side.
 
The building called as "Dor building" was located at just east of the southern propylon building with its irregular formation close to a rectangle. It is a building that is turned towards north, has four columns, a front courtyard, a marble side and is in Dor style. It absolutely had the function of a fountain building. This small building has been included in the bath complex.
 
200 m west of the holy building, lies the stadium whose back side is reinforced with a retaining wall. The starting and end stones of the competitions are still existing at both ends. It is supposed that some competitions have been made here during the feast of 5 days made in the holy area.
 
Beçin, The Capital of Menteşeoğulları Principality
 
Beçin ruins are placed on a plateau seeing Milas Plain completely, at 5 km south of Milas District of Muğla. It is on the highway separating towards the ruin place from Milas - Bodrum - Muğla road fork.
 
The name of the city is "Pezona" in Middle Age Italian references and "Barçın", "Berçin", "Peçin" and "Beçin" in Turkish - Islamic references. Although there are no definite information relating to the pre - Turkish Period history of the city, some findings make us think that Beçin has a history going back to 2000 BC. The region is known to go under the domination of the Turks in the second half of XIII century. Menteşeoğulları, who has got hold of the city, have made Milas capital at the beginning, but at the beginning of XIV. century, they moved the government center to Beçin, since it was easier to defend. Beçin has been the capital of the kingdom during the sovereignty of Tacettin Ahmet Gazi. After the death of him in 1391, the region has been added to the Ottoman Empire by Yıldırım Bayezid and the government center has been moved to Balat (Milet).
 
The ruins of the buildings of the city that reached today:
 
Roman Grave: It is in the residence center of today of Beçin, beside the ruin place road. The chamber is in the form of a grave.
 
Inner Fort: It is in the northern side of the city. The fort, which has taken its shape of today in its period, has been partially based on a temple. The opuses, whose existence could be determined in the area surrounded by city walls that are in very bad condition, are a bath, a cistern and the ruin of a vault building. The bath is thought to be built in XIV century, during Menteşeoğulları Period.
 
Large Bath: It is between Ahmet Gazi madrasa and Inner Fort. It is dated in XIV century. It is the largest among the baths in the city. The dressing part of the bath having three liwans is destroyed.
 
Ahmet Gazi Madrasa: It has been constructed by Tacettin Ahmet Gazi, Menteşe Ruler, in 1375 according to its inscription. It has an open courtyard and two liwans. In the main liwan of the madrasa, the graves of Ahmet Gazi and his relatives are located.
 
Orhan Bey Mosque: It is across Ahmet Gazi Madrasa. It is understood that the building was in construction in 1330s, when İbni Batuta visited Beçin. It has a rectangular plan close to a square. Its entrance and the part of its walls up to 1.5 m height are standing. From the references and excavation results, it is understood that this is a wood supported mosque.
 
Ruler Mansion: It is in northwestern of Ahmet Gazi Madrasa. The excavation works are continuing in the building which is thought to belong to 14th century.
 
Ruler Bath: It is in the north of the mansion. The water tank, boiler room and undressing part of the bath which is longitudinally heated and which has double cells, have been discovered during the excavation works performed in 1995.
 
Kızıl Caravansary: The caravansary, which is dated to the end of 14th century or 15th century, has two floors. The stable part at the lower side is covered with a vault that is partially destroyed. The two parts in the upper side are understood to be covered with a dome.
 
Chapel: It is approximately 200 m southern of Orhan Mosque. It is thought to belong to Mid - Byzantine Period.
 
Yelli Mosque: It is in Kepez area. It is dated to 14th century. It is a building having a square plan covered with a single dome. In its northern side, there is a two - unit end community place.
 
Karapaşa Madrasa: It is a madrasa having an open courtyard. It is estimated to be constructed at the end of 14th century or in 15th century. It is in a very ruined condition.
 
Fethiye Museum
 
The idea of exhibiting the opuses belonging to the region in a location in the district that is rich in terms of archeology belongs to the authorities of that period at the beginning of 1960s and the first core of the museum has occurred in those years. After that, large scaled stone opuses collected from the surrounding have been protected in a depot; with the building constructed in 1987, contemporary museum understanding became dominant and the opuses have been served to the visitors. Fethiye Museum consists of two halls, one for archeology and the other for ethnography. Almost all of the opuses exhibited in these two halls have been compiled from Fethiye and its surroundings.
 
A big part of the opuses being exhibited in the archeology part consists of ceramic group opuses. The opuses in the hall have been subjected to a chronological order among themselves. Most important of the opuses covering the period from 3000 BC to the end of the Byzantine period is undoubtedly the stel that had great contributions in decoding Likian language. There is a text on this stel which is written in three different languages. Another important opus of the museum is the "Sculpture of Young Girl with Dove" and the sculpture of two women beside it. The sculpture of the girl with dove is related with Arthemis cult and it is important in terms of its showing the existence of an Arthemis temple in the city in ancient period.
 
In the ethnography hall, there are various hand weaving samples, hand embroideries, robes, üç etek (a kind of dress worn by women), and silver jewelry special to the region. In addition, a dastar loom that is in active condition with all its units is also exhibited in this part. In the open part of the museum, large stone blocked opuses, sarcophagus graves and "Izraza Monument", which is a product of Lichean culture are exhibited.
 
Telmessos Ancient City
Although the history of Fethiye, or with its ancient name Telmessos, which is the only center where settlement continued from its establishment on Mediterranean shore band until today, goes back to 3rd thousands BC in accordance with some philological determinations, monuments that would verify those periods has not been encountered, yet. Many earthquakes that happened since the archaic period and new settlement understanding caused the disappearance of archaic period buildings by time. But the graves engraved into the rocks at the south of the modern city and the sarcophaguses at different locations of the city are evaluated as ancient ruins that reached today from the archaic period. The most famous, and the most magnificent of the rock graves is undoubtedly Amyntas grave in accordance with the inscription on the left ante wall. The theatre ruin that is discovered in the excavations carried out by the museum in recent years provides some information about the layout and organization of the city in archaic period.
 
Kaunos Archaic City
According to a myth, the city that is at the other side of Ortaca - Dalyan mountain pass has been established by Kaunos, who is one of the twin children of Miletos, at Karya - Likia border. Kaunos, which was a harbor city in Archaic Period, is very far away from the shore today. At the entrance to the city, rock graves are opuses that draw the attention of the visitors. On the other hand, the city walls having a length of 3 km and surrounding the city, Stoa, agora, fountain, bath, theatre and temple ruins evidence that Kaunos was a city having full organization in the Archaic Period. The city, which has been subject to a dense settlement in the Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine Periods, has been left in ..th century AD. The upper acropolis has been used for a period in the Middle Age by being surrounded, but this settlement has not had a long period.
 
Kadyanda Archaic City
It is established on a hill at southeastern of Üzümlü Area at a distance of 24 km to Fethiye. It was on Kaunos - Araxa road in Archaic Period. A part of the city wall that surrounded the city, rock graves and inscriptions written in Likia language are the ruins in Kadyanda ruin place that can be dated to the earliest period. In addition to these, Hellenistic period theater that has also been used in the Roman period after a repair, the bath, the runway, agora, the ruins of the temple, that could not be determined to belong to which God and intense civil construction traces show that Kadyanda ruin place is a full city that has been subject to settlement in the Archaic Period.
 
Tlos Archaic City
It is in Yaka Village at a distance of 35 km to Fethiye. Although the city is spread over a large area, the ruins are focused in and around the acropolis. The dominant appearance of the acropolis at the city entrance impress the visitors. The surrounding of the acropolis hill having a natural protection with the sharp slopes having a height of 500 m has been reinforced with city walls here and there. The city walls of the acropolis in northeastern direction belonging to early period and the rock graves are samples of Lichean cult. The city walls that are mostly observed in the eastern and southeastern direction have been constructed in the Roman period. These are known to be repaired in the Byzantine Period. In this repair, the ruins of various buildings and the stones of sarcophagus graves have been used. The late period building group constructed with the collected stones at the top is the ruins belonging to the settlement of the master named Ali Ağa who was dominant in the region in 19th century. At the skirts of the acropolis, a stadium whose few seats remained today, bath, theatre and church ruins are located.
 
Pınara Archaic City
It is near Minare Village at a distance of 45 km to Fethiye. In Lichean language, Pinale or Pınara means "round". In accordance with mythology, when the population of Xanthos increased too much, a group of old people left the city and established Pınara City on a round hill at the skirts of Kragos Mountain. The remainders of the city that could reach today are the ruins of the rock graves and sarcophagus graves and buildings such as city walls, bath, theater, agora, Odeon. The city, which has lived a number of great earthquakes has lost its importance completely after the 8th century AD.
 
Letoon Archaic City
It is near Kumluova Village at 65th km of Fethiye - Kaş highway. In accordance with a story told by the poet Ovidius, the city was established in the name of Leto, who became pregnant from Zeus. The traces of old settlement in the city goes back to 7th century BC. The ruins and the inscriptions obtained show that this place was a religious and political area. There are three temples at the center of the ruin place side by side. The one at the most northern direction is devoted to Leto, the one in the middle is devoted to Artemis and the one in the south is devoted to Apollo. In the southwest of the temples, there is a fountain building and just beside it, there is a church. In the northern side of the city, there is a Stoa and a theater, which gives its rear side to the natural slope partially, belonging to the Hellenistic Period. Letoon has been left in the 7th century AD.
 
Xanthos Archaic City
It is at the 70th km of Fethiye - Kaş highway. It has been the capital city of Lichea in the Archaic Period. The most ancient ruins found in the city goes back to 8th century BC. Among the ruins that could reach today from the city that has been subjected to many historical events and wars, are the rock graves, sarcophagus graves and erected grave monuments special to the Lichean culture and Lichea acropolis. The theatre, which has been repaired for many times, and the church constructed in the Early Hellenistic Period are among the opuses that can be seen. English Fellows, who made excavations in the archaic city in 1840s has taken "Nereidler Monument" and many opuses to British Museum.
 
Bodrum Underwater Archeological Museum
 
Bodrum Castle was established between two harbours, on a rocky peninsula surrounded with sea at three sides. It is attached to land from the northern side. The castle has a rectangular plan. Its dimensions are 180 x 185 meters. Its highest place is French towers of which height above sea level is 47,50 meters. Other than French tower, there are four more towers including English, Italian, German and Yılanlı towers. The areas of the castle at outer side of the eastern wall are reinforced with double castle wall. The chevaliers strengthened the ramparts at land side and did not do the same for sea ramparts as they believed that they would be able to avoid any attack from the sea side with their strong navy at sea.
 
In order to reach the inner castle, one should pass seven doors. The first door of the castle is at north - west corner. A ramp road should be passed near the police - station in order to reach the door. At the beginning of the ramp, the door stands at the back of the slope. Thus, the door is protected from direct firing of guns. There is a Greek inscription on marble door lento. Jacques Gatineau, who acted as the commander in the castle between 1512 - 1513, warned with this inscription that the people who made espionage in the castle would be punished. And this shows that the chevaliers did not trust the people of the city.
 
There is a part we called northern ditch when entered through inside. And there is a triple armorial bearing group at the inner side of the door.
 
There are 249 armorial bearings on the walls of Bodrum castle. In addition, 16 armorial bearings are being exhibited in the garden of the museum. These armorial bearing are generally similar to each other. It is unknown to whom these bearings belong to, as the paints of these bearings, of which originals are painted, have disappeared.
 
There are crosses, vertical and horizontal bands, dragon and lion figures on the armorial bearings. There are traces of the paints on some of the armorial bearings located on castle towers. Colour traces are seen on St. Katerin embossment, on the way looking towards French tower, at eastern wall, on the flag at north - east upper corner of French tower.
 
The armorial bearing at the middle of the triple armorial bearing group located at the inner side of the 1st door of the castle belongs to Jacques Gatineau, the commander of the castle. The Latin script below the armorial bearings says: "Belief shall be protected here by Gatineau on behalf of Catholic Church". The lion on the door lento, at the left side of this armorial bearing group belongs to Hellenistic Period.
 
There is a passage from the wooden bridge, of which original is armorial bearing bridge, to the inclined stone road. Inside of the ditch was partially being filled of water before the construction of the harbor. The aggregate wall at right side was made when the castle was used as a prison. The building, which has thick walls and inclined roof, is a place for protection of the guns. The ditch was made for protection against the attacks to come from east in 1913, as it is understood from the armorial bearings on it. The gun slits are being seen through ditch and harbor direction. They are close to the sea level in order to be able to fire to the water section of the ships to enter to the harbor.
 
Today, the northern ditch is used as an area where the Bodrum Festival and theatre plays are being held. The grave seen behind the ditch, at the back of the sitting places belongs to Rome Period.
 
At the top of the 2nd door, there is a triple armorial bearing group on which there is a crowned eagle. There is a single armorial bearing at the left side of the triple armorial bearing group. An unused door exists at left side of this door. And there are two armorial bearings on the door. You may reach to the courtyard after passing the 2nd door. There is a harbor tower at one side of the courtyard looking towards the sea. The entrance of gun protection area is also located here. There is a Greek inscription on the door lento concerning the emperor Hadrianus. The gun protection area is still being used as an art gallery.
 
The 3rd door is a well-protected door. There are door gate and oil holes in the wall for iron plate movable for up and down directions. Two armorial bearings exist at left side of the 3rd door. There are armorial bearings of the dervish and Guy de Blanchfort (1512 - 1513) at right side. It unknown to which chevalier the below crossed armorial bearing belonged.
 
One may reach to the western ditch after passing this door. All of the green stones seen on the castle walls at right were brought from Mausoleion. There is a statue of Roman commander in the niche of the harbor tower, at opposite side of the 4th door. Such statute bodies were widespread. Their heads were being made separately and when a new commander came, the head of the old commander was being taken from the body and replaced with the new commander's head.
 
The 4th door opens to a vault having stairs. There are four armorial bearings on this door. When you pass through the tree - lined road in the western ditch, instead of climbing upstairs from the 4th door, you may see altars, tombs and various works collected from Halikarnassos and its environs. The stone wall beginning from the cistern at left belongs to Turkish Castle built in the middle of XIV. Century. Later, the chevaliers raised the walls with Mausoleion's stones and enlarged the castle. The chevaliers did not use the ditches as transportation way; they used to reach the inner castle by means of suspension bridges. The pillar of the suspension bridge made of Mausoleion's green stones can bee seen on the southern wall. The wall at both sides of the pillar was built when the castle was used as a prison. The stone stairs at the end of the ditch was also added to the castle later. The embossment on the wall at right side of the stairs shows Saint George killing a dragon. The original place of this embossment is not here. It is brought from the inner castle, from the northern wall of Italian tower. There are three armorial bearings below Saint George figure. When you climb the stairs, you see the cross and united armorial bearing of Piere d'Aubusson at the middle of the door. He worked as üstad-ı azam (the chief master) in Rhodes between 1476 and 1503. He visited Bodrum Castle many times. He was awarded by the pope with the rank of cardinal helmet as he imprisoned Cem Sultan who took refuge of him. The tasselled cardinal helmet is seen on the armorial bearing. The armorial bearing is a two-sided red cross on yellow ground. There are two more armorial bearings other than this.
 
The small tower at right side beyond the door is the control tower of suspension bridge. There is the monogram of II. Mahmut on the outer wall surface of this tower. Reckoned from the Hegira 1235 is written on this monogram. This monogram is written on a chevalier armorial bearing, as it is understood from the Malta cross.
 
In order to enter the inner castle, you should turn back and follow the narrow road. There is an armorial bearing on a high place, on the castle wall at left side. A photograph related with this armorial bearing is being exhibited from the loopholes, which are closed later.
 
The Latin inscription on the 5th door says "My Master protect us while sleeping and rescue while awake. Nobody can protect us without your protection". There is a triple armorial bearing group below the inscription. You may reach to the southern side of the castle, when you pass this door. There are two castle walls here. Two tombs are located across the 7th door, used as drinking basin before. There is a triple armorial bearing group on 7th floor.
 
You may enter to the inner castle by means of a vaulted corridor. There is a cistern under this corridor. The previous armorial bearing group was embroidered on the entrance of the inner castle. There are 14 cisterns in the inner castle and under the chapel. The necessary water was obtained from these cisterns when the castle was besieged. Some of these cisterns are still being used.
 
It is possible to see all trees and flowers of archaic world and the region in the inner courtyard. One of these trees is bay - tree. (Daphne in Greek and Laurus in Latin language). The tree known as oleander in Anatolia ornaments the castle with its flowers and leaves which do not fall in summer and winter. There are plane trees in the middle of the courtyard of which shadows are found healthy by the kings and aristocrats. Among the trees grown in the region, there are olive trees which carry great importance in archaic world and myrtles which are used in many ceremonies. Myrtle was the holy tree of Aphrodite. Pigeon among the birds and rose among the flowers were vowed to Aphrodite. To meet with the salutation of pigeons and to smell the roses may remind Aphrodite to the visitors of the castle. Mandrake is a plan being exhausted. For this reason, this plant is being grown in the castle with a great care. This plant is known to be used for anesthesia. It is possible to see any kind of flower and trees suitable for Mediterranean climate including silk cloves blooming the most beautiful purple in summer, geranium with various colors, various cactuses, begonias and Cyprus acacia, pines, pomegranate trees and mulberry trees.
 
Asar Hill (Masadağ - Mobolla) : The Asar Hill which is located at the upper skirts of the today's Muğla urban site and the hill is steeply rising in the directions of west, south and east and having a plain peak and therefore known as the Masa Dağ (Table Mountain) by the local folk. The hill displays a rare natural texture and also contains important archeological ruins. The castle located here is the "Mobolla" Castle which is mentioned in the ancient Hittite inscriptions and is founded on the most suitable hill for the defense of the ancient settlements founded at the region of today's Muğla province. At the lower plain area in front of this site, open air sacred places are clearly visual reflecting the 2nd thousand Anatolian Hittite and 1st thousand Frig and Urartu traditions and continuing their existence at the Carian and Lykian regions at the late periods. The rampart ruins of the Mobolla castle constructed from the rectangular blocks are preserved well. There is a medieval palace constructed from mortared debris stone blocks and having at least three floors which is settled over high terraces located to the north of the plain. There are burial grounds and tombs at the eastern and western skirts of Mobolla castle.
 
MOSQUES
 
Kurşunlu Mosque : The Mosque was constructed by Esseyyit Sucaaddin in 1493. The different property of the mosque from other mosques in Muğla Province is that the dome of the mosque is covered with lead.
 
Şahidi Mosque : The structure was initially a small mosque constructed in the name of Seyyid Kemalettin and was restored and expanded in 1848 by Hacı Osman Ağa. The mausoleum of Şahidi Dede and the graveyards of Seyyid Kemalettin and İbrahim Dede is located in the courtyard of the mosque.
 
Ulu Mosque : The Ulu Mosque is known as the oldest mosque of the province. The mosque was constructed by the one of the Menteşe State Sultans, İbrahim Bey in 1334 and was restored in a following date.
 
INNS AND BATHS
 
The inns and baths present in the province of Muğla could be counted as; Yağcılar Inn, Konukaltı Inn, Yarım Inn and Vakıflar Bath.
 
TRADITIONAL MUGLA HOUSES
 
These traditional houses are especially present at the skirts of the Hisar Mountain and are structures reflecting the traditional texture with red roof tiled roofs, whitewashed walls and green trees overflowing over these walls forming a harmonic trio in the urban silhouette. Most of these houses have courtyards and has two floors.
 
HIGHLANDS
 
The plateau is located to the southeast of Muğla province at 3 km. distance to the city center. The plateau is plaited with roads called İrim and is a beautiful and cool promenade place with its cold water, fertile land, high plane trees, abundant fruit trees, grapes, vegetables, tobacco and a local property "Kuyu Büryanı " (Well Büryan) and with the whitewashed houses visible among the evergreen trees. As the sound of the birds are mixed with the water pumps drawing cold water from the wells of the houses, a different natural beauty appears. The tradition of living at the high cool plateaus during the hot summer days is still continuing.
 
SPORTS ACTIVITIES
 
Rafting : The Dalaman Creek flowing between Marmaris and Fethiye Districts is a suitable place for rafting purposes in all seasons.
 
Camp sites : There are numerous camp sites of Ministry of Forest at the province of Muğla and its districts.
 
 Geography
 
The dominant climate of the Muğla Province is the terrestrial climate which is under the effect of the Mediterranean climate. The summer seasons are hot and dry while winter seasons are mild and precipitant. The precipitation is dense generally in months of November and March. The average annual temperature is 14.9.
 History
 
The known oldest inhabitants of the region are the Leleg and Kar nations whose existence was understood from the remnants and findings belonging to BC 3000 years. The region had entered under the reign of Persian, Alexander the Great, Bergama, Roman, Byzantine, Seljukian, Menteşe State and Ottoman civilizations afterwards.
 
 Where to Eat
 
Muğla and its districts reflect the properties of Turkish Kitchen with its rich meal varieties. Especially the variety of the vegetable meals and pastries is amazing. Tarhana (soup with dried yogurt), ara and dutmeş (soups); çopur, döş, çızdırma, gürlen kebab, sura, Roasting with honey, dövme köfte (battered meat ball) and karın - kumbar stuff (meat meals); every type of fish grill and steamed, fish with rice (fish); hardal boiled, börülce kavurma (roasted kidney bean), sirken otlaşı, ekşili biber (sour pepper), galli patlıcan (aubergine) (vegetable ); ballı kabuk (shell with honey), üzüm köftesi (grape rissole) , hoşmerim, pekmez reçeli (molasses jam), grape, tomato, aubergine and marrow jam (deserts) are the local food culture varieties which are worth tasting . You should try......
 
 What to Buy
 
Carpet business is the most common hand craft at the villages of Milas, Bodrum and Yatağan districts. The pileless carpet and destar textile industry is very developed in Fethiye. The forged copper hand works are present at the districts of Yatağan and Kavaklıdere subdistrict. Some of the souvenirs of the region could be counted as the carpets of Milas, Bodrum and Yatağan districts, pileless carpets and destar textile products of Fethiye district, forged copper products of Kavaklıdere Subdistrict.
 
 Don't Leave Without
 
- Visiting Bodrum, Fethiye, Köyceğiz, Marmaris and Datça districts,
 
- Visiting the Muğla Bazaar and Arasta, Muğla Museum and traditional Muğla Houses,
 
- Buying authentic textile clothing of Muğla,
 
- Tasting the Muğla keşkek,
 
- Tasting Çındar roast and Börülce teretor,
 
- Participating a local wedding of Muğla,
 
- Visiting the Karabağlar Plateau
 
 Sites
 
Registered Immobile Cultural and Natural Heritages in Muğla
 
Sites
 
Archaeological Sites: 321
Urban Sites: 7
Natural Sites: 114
Historical Sites: -
 
Other Sites
 
Archaeological and Natural Sites: 12
Archaeological and Historical : 1
Archaeological and Urban Sites: 8
Historical and Urban Sites : 2
Natural and Urban Sites: 2
Historical and Natural Sites: 1
Archaeological, Natural and Urban : 1
Total: 469
Cultural (at Single Construction Scale) and Natural
Heritages: 3002
 
TOTAL: 3471
 
 Contact Information
 
Governorship : (+90-252) 214 10 01
 
Municipality : (+90-252) 411 40 43
 
Hospital : (+90-252) 214 13 23 - 214 13 24
 
Police : (+90-252) 214 15 29
 
Gendarme : (+90-252) 317 05 88
 
Provincial Directorate : (+90-252) 214 12 61
 
Provincial Cultural Directorate : (+90-252) 214 83 43 - 214 60 06
 
Tourism Information Office : (+90-252) 316 10 91

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