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Izmir

 

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İZMİR

Area : 11.973 km²
 
Population : 2.694.770 (1990)
 
Traffic Code : 35
 
İzmir is the third biggest city in Turkey with a population of around 2.5 million, the second biggest port after Istanbul, and a good transport hub. Once the ancient city of Smyrna, it is now a modern, developed, and busy commercial centre, set around a huge bay and surrounded by mountains and was. The broad boulevards, glass-fronted buildings and modern shopping centres are dotted with traditional red-tiled roofs, the 18th century market, and old mosques and churches, although the city has an atmosphere more of Mediterranean Europe than traditional Turkey.
 
The climate is comfortable, with a relatively mild summer due to the refreshing breeze from the Aegean. The long attractive palm-fringed promenade, Birince Kordon, which stretches the entire length of the city up to the Alsancak Ferry Terminal, is a popular spot for evening walks, and there are many cafes along the waterfront. Izmir has a good selection of culture and entertainment, from the Archaeological and Ethnographic Museums, to the Izmir State Opera and Ballet and Izmir State Symphony Orchestra, to the many bars and clubs. The cosmopolitan and lively city gets even busier during the International Izmir Festival (mid-June to mid-July) with music and dance, with performances also in nearby Cesme and Ephesus.
 
Districts : Balcova, Cigli, Gaziemir, Karsiyaka, Konak, Aliaga, Bayindir, Bergama, Beydag, Bornova, Buca, Cesme, Dikili, Foca, Karaburun, Kemalpasa, Kinik, Kiraz, Menderes, Menemen, Narlibahce, Odemis, Seferihisar, Selcuk, Tire, Turbalı and Urla.
 
Selçuk
 
South of Izmir on the south Aegean, Selcuk has been transformed since the 1990s into a major tourist destination, mainly as a base to visit the famous ruins of Ephesus a few kilometres away. The ancient classical city is one of the best preserved in the eastern Mediterranean and is a great example of Roman architecture.
 
Selcuk has many historical remains of early Christianity, including a house which many believe to have been visited by the Virgin Mary, and Ayasoluk Hill where St John write his Gospel. There are many small hotels and guest-houses, restaurants and shops which makes the town a good base to explore the area. The town gets busy during the famous annual camel wrestling festival, held in Ephesus around February.
 
History
 
According to ancient inscriptions, Ephesus is thought to have been inhabited since around 3000 BC, roughly the same time as Smyrna, and evidence of Ion, Roman, Byzantine, Seljukian and Ottoman civilisations are still seen today. The ancient city was a good centre for trading, mainly because of its location close to coast, and religion. It was known for the cult of Cybele, the Anatolian fertility goddess, then later for Artemis, the virgin goddess for which a temple was built in her honour.
 
The temple was destroyed in 356BC, and when Alexander the Great passed through in 334 BC he offered to pay for the cost of a new construction, provided it was dedicated to him. The Ephesus people declined, and rebuilt it with great success.
 
When the Romans made Ephesus their provincial capital, it became a busy town with great commercial, trading and political importance, and a population that grew to around 250,000. A significant Christian community grew, and the city was visited by St John the Evangelist in the 1st century, then by St Paul, who was there between 51-53 AD and wrote some of his epistles. It was also the venue of two Ecumenical Councils.
 
 
But the success of Roman Ephesus began to dwindle, mainly because of problems connected to the harbour, which was the main source of trade. The Cayster River was pushing silt up the harbour and despite attempts to dredge it and rebuild the harbour, the sea was pushed back to Pamucak, 4km away, and therefore Ephesus lost its source of wealth. By the 6th century, the city was unliveable and was shifted near to St John’s Basilica, and by 1090 it was taken over by the Turks.
 
Climate
 
Similar to a typical Mediterranean climate, the region has hot and dry summers, reaching around 30 degrees. The winters are cool and wet, and the nights can get cool and drop below 10 degrees.
 
 Where to Visit
 
SelçukEphesusArcheologyMuseum
 
With a fine collection of statues, mosaics and artefacts, the museum in the centre of Selcuk helps shed a little more light on the Ephesus ruins. Many found before World War I were taken to the Vienna Museum, but wherever possible, most were returned after World War II.
 
The museum shows around 50,000 exhibits, in chronological order, from the Miken, Archaic, Roman, Byzantine and Turk periods, and is split into Archaeological and Ethnographic sections. The most interesting items include the Myken vases found at Ayasuluk Hill, pieces from temple of Artemis, a tomb from the Belevi Mausoleum, two statues of Artemis, an embossed image of Theodosius from Hadrian Temple, and many more statues and portraits from early Christianity. The ethnographic section is set up in an arasta (row of shops) with examples of Turkish and Ottoman daily life.
 
Museum Tel: (+90 232) 892 60 10.
 
Opening hours: Summer – 08.30–12.00 & 13.00-19.00. Winter – 08.30-12.00 & 13.00-17.00.
 
Çamlık Open-Air RailMuseum
 
The village of Camlik, around 10km from Selcuk, is the location of this museum, which exhibits over 20 steam locomotives in a 160-acre site that was the sidings of a train works. Ataturk had his headquarters here and kept his special white train at this station during Aegean manoeuvres, controlling them by being in close proximity to the coast. Most of the engines, some dating back to pre World War I, are German made (it was the Germans who built most of the Turkish railways) but there are also those made in Britain, America, France and Sweden.
 
SaadetHatunPublicBathMuseum
 
The origin of the Turkish Hamam comes from the Roman public baths, as the bathing culture has a significant part in Roman culture, preserving its importance until the middle of the Byzantine period. It later was forgotten in Mediterranean countries and Europe, but reappeared more actively in Turkey.
 
There are seven known hamams in the Selcuk region, one of which is the Saadet Hatun Hamam, according to its inscriptions. The exact identity is unknown, but she is thought to be a noble woman from the Aydinogullari governmental lineage. The hamam dates back to the 16th century and contains most of the traditional features, including the three sections of cold, tepid and hot water. The baths were in a state of disrepair until 1970 when they were restored in 1972 by the Ephesus Museum.
 
ANCIENT CITIES
 
Ephesus Ruins
 
This huge site, one of the best preserved ancient cities in the Mediterranean, will take most of the day to see every part in detail. It is easily approached by road from Selçuk, or by public transport from Kuşadası.
 
 
Vedius Gymnasium and Stadium
 
Soon after the entrance to the site are the ruins of Vedius Gymnasium, which was built by a wealthy local businessman in the late 2nd century, in the name of Vedius Antonius. It is a magnificent structure, built as a venue for sporting and cultural education and contains exercise fields and covered rooms, baths, changing rooms, a courtyard and ceremonial room in the centre. To the south is the Stadium, where races, games, and Olympic events took place.
 
Acropolis
 
There is a building dated to 6th century BC on a hill known as Acropolis at opposite side to stadium. There is a temple dated to years of 350 BC at north - west of the hill.
 
Byzantine Public Baths
 
After Stadium way coming across to the Byzantines public baths.
 
Church of St Mary (DoubleChurch)
 
Near the Byzantine public baths, this Church holds a special importance in Christian history. Built between the 2nd and 4th centuries AD, it was originally a museum and venue for lectures and debates. It was destroyed by fire in the 4th century and rebuilt as a church, which became the venue of the third Ecumenical Council in 431. It is the first church to be dedicated to the Virgin Mary.
 
Port Public Baths
 
The public baths first built at 2nd century AC, it restored and some changes made on building at the 4th century empire in empire Konstantinus period.
 
Arkadiane (Port Street)
 
Beyond the church is Arcadiane Way, a huge wide street over 500m long and 11m wide. Named after 5th century Byzantine Emperor Arcadius who renovated it, it was the street which ran towards the port, and where kings were greeted and religious ceremonies took place. The 400m long Marble Street, also known as Sacred Way, begins at the base of the theatre and runs alongside the agora and Serapis Temple, and was rebuilt during the 5th century.
 
Theatre
 
This is one of most beautiful and best preserved of all the ruins, and is used as the venue for the annual Ephesus Festival. With a capacity of 25,000, it was built during the Hellenistic period, with reconstruction continuing during Empire Claudius’s times, and finalised between 98-117 AD.
 
Marble Street
 
Marble floored street that starts from Magnesia gate placed at south - east of Ephesus and lie towards the Koresos gate placed at north - west of city, approximately 400 m long street is rebuilt at the 5th AC.
 
Library of Celsus
 
The library is adjacent to the commercial Agora, built by Asian consul Gaius Julius Aquila, in 135AD, in memory of his father who is entombed here. In a building showing all the characteristics of Roman architecture, the front is ornately decorated with replicas of statues of four women between the front columns, symbolising mind, destiny, science and wisdom. The originals are in the Vienna Museum.
 
Love House
 
When you go up from marble street, at the cross section point with Kuretler street Love house can be seen. This interesting house dated to first century AC, consist of one main hall and many rooms connected to this hall. It is estimated that the mosaic girl portraits found in love house are figures of working girls in this building. It is very interesting that in the love house there is and heating and cooling system present equivalent to today's air condition system. It is known that there were wine granaries, huge ovens, public baths, pools, bed rooms, conference saloons and a magnificent library.
 
Skolastika Public Bath
 
A wealthy Roman woman, Skolastika, restored these baths in the 5th century, although they were probably built 400 years earlier. They were heated by a central heating system, and are an interesting example of the use of marble. Her headless statue adorns the entrance.
 
HadrianTemple
 
This is one of the most beautiful buildings on Curetes Way, although only the front façade remains today. In the architrave is an interesting mythological scene, depicting Andoklus killing a wild boar.
 
Trajan Fountain
 
Next to the Gate of Hercules and near the Temple of Hadrian, is the Trajan Fountain. There used to be a huge statue of the emperor decorating the fountain, which is now exhibited in Ephesus Museum.
 
Slope Houses
 
Near the Library of Celcus, at the bottom of the slope of the mount, is a row of houses that were thought to be the residences of the wealthy people of Ephesus. The recent restorations pay close attention to their original form of opening straight onto the street with wide stairs, walls decorated with mosaics and frescoes, and marble plating.
 
Temple of Domitian
 
This is the first temple to be built in the name of an emperor, dedicated to Emperor Domitian (AD 81-96). Opposite this was the governmental agora, which was placed in the most central and beautiful place in the city. The head and arms are the only remaining pieces of the huge statue, which are exhibited at Izmir Archaeology Museum, and the entrance pedestals are at Ephesus Museum.
 
City Hall (Prytaneion)
 
On the right of the assembly palace, a Hestia altar with a sacred fire burning continuously is accepted as a holy site. This was the venue of political duties, important ceremonies and official greetings, and one of the most important religious places in Ephesus.
 
Odeon (Bouleuterion)
 
Odeon tat built by Publis Vedius Antonius a rich man of ephesus at 2nd cemtury AC, cover was wooden plated at its times.
 
ArtemisTemple
 
It is known that first ephesus settlements was built around these temple place. Temple collapsed by an earth quake than ephesusians built temple more imposing by the support of Roman empire. Ephesus Artemis Temple known as one of the seven wonders of world today only base ruins remained.
 
St. Jean Basilica
 
Basilisca that built by Byzantine Empire Justinyen for the name of St. Jean at 6th AC, is take place on Ayasuluk hill. Cross planed building have entrance at west is 40 X 110 m. sized, and an domed type basilica.
 
Seven Sleepers
 
According to rumour, before the acceptance of Christianity as an official religion, seven young men fled from Ephesus in the 3rd century and took refuge here. They sealed up the cave and fell asleep, and were woken up 200 years later by an earthquake which broke the seal. When they awoke and walked into the town, they realised that Ephesus was now an official Christian city. It was deemed to be a miraculous event, and when the young men died they were buried in the same cave, which is now a Byzantine-era grotto. The adjacent building is named after them and has a large monument, many rock-engraved tombs, two churches and catacombs.
 
The Virgin Mary House
 
Beyond Ephesus and on Bulbul Dag (mountain), 8km southwest of Selcuk, the monument is thought by some to be where the Virgin Mary died, and is visited by Christian and Muslim pilgrims from around the world. The small stone house is now a chapel, and probably dates back to the 4th century, although the foundations are thought to be 1st century.
 
It was not until a German nun, Catherine Emmerich (1774-1824) claimed that she had visions of Mary living in ‘a small, stone house’ in even though the nun had never left Germany. Following her descriptions, 19th century clergy discovered the foundations of the house, which was then verified by a Papal visit in 1967. It has since been accepted that Mary spent her last few years here until she died at the age of 101.
 
The Feast of Assumption, on August 15, is celebrated here by the Orthodox Greeks, and Mass is said daily. The church can only be accessed by car, as no public buses come through the dense forest surrounding it.
 
MONUMENTS and TOMBS
 
Belevi Mausoleum
 
Situated on the Izmir highway 13km from Selcuk, this mausoleum is in the town of Belevi, and one of the biggest and highest monuments in Anatolia, after the Halicarnassus Mausoleum. It dates back to the Hellenistic era.
 
CASTLES
 
Ayasuluk Hill and Castle
 
This hill was protected well forticicated castle during the early Christian, Byzantine and Seljuklian periods. The rampart which still out standing, built at early Christianity period than take an big restoration in Seljuklian period.
 
Aqueducts
 
The aqueduct, which can be seen around the train station, is a relic of the Byzantine times. The canal brought water from the east, through Ayasuluk hill. This aqueduct and its immediate surrounding area have become a breeding and nesting place for storks, which have become a modern day symbol of Selcuk. There is another aqueduct 6km along the highway to Aydin, known as the Gaius Sextillius Pollio Aqueduct.
 
CAVES
 
SütniCave
 
On the valley slopes outside Selcuk, Sutni Cave has stalactites and stalagmites that drip white water into the cave. The belief is that mothers of new-born babies who have insufficient milk should drink the water from the cave.
 
MOSQUES nad PUBLIC BATHS
 
İsa Bey Mosque Near the Artemision are the mosque and baths, examples of very distinguished Seljuk monuments. They were built by Isa Bey in 1375 and boast innovative architecture that combines Seljuk and Ottoman style, with a courtyard and hoop stalactite vaulting over the entrance. The hamam has classical Turkish features, and is also domed.
 
ORNITHOLOGY AREAS
 
The water at the Selcuk Gevekirse lake is a bird protection and breeding area, in a 1000 hectare site between Ephesus and Pamcak, north of Ephesus. There are between 30 and 40 species of birds and mammals living here, including divers, pelicans, many types of ducks, woodcocks, as well as wild boar, foxes and jackals.
 
ŞirinceVillage
 
This small village 7km through the hills from Selcuk is attractive for its setting among fruit orchards, old-fashioned stone houses with red tiled roofs, and narrow streets. It is also famous for its home-made wine, and lace made by the local women.
 
Once known as Kirkince, the village was built the Greeks around 800 years ago and since the population exchange in 1924 has since been inhabited by Muslims from Salonica. The village has a few guest-houses and restaurants, and is popular with foreign and Turkish tourists to experience a taste of traditional village life in a peaceful environment.
 
 What to Buy
 
There are many shops in the centre of town, selling souvenirs and carpets as well as clothes. There is a market every Saturday on the outskirts of town.
 
 Don't Leave Without
 
Having a glass of home-made wine in Şirince,
 
Walking around the ruins of Ephesus, and visiting the Virgin Mary’s House,
 
Seeing the grotto of the Seven Sleepers,
 
Visiting the Ephesus Archaeology Museum.
 
 Contact Information
 
District Head Office Tel: (+90 232) 892 63 66
 
Selçuk Tourism Information Office Tel: (+90 232) 892 63 28
 
Selçuk Municipality Office Tel: (+90 232) 892 69 25 / 892 69 11
 
Police Headquarter Tel: (+90 232) 892 60 04
 
Hospital Tel: (+90 - 232) 892 70 36
 
Bergama
 
Located 100 km north of İzmir in the Bakırçay river basin, Bergama is one of Turkey's oldest civilized settlements and it has been inhabited from pre-historic times through the Ionic, Roman and Byzantine civilizations. It has yielded archeological treasures of which importance is recognized world-wide.To the southwest of Bergama, Asclepion, an important health center of the ancient world, the acropolis founded on top of a steep hill (300 m) and the Temple of Serapis (Kızıl Avlu) make this area a fascinating stop for history-loving tourists. The Altar of Zeus was smuggled to Germany in 1897.
 
 
History
 
The modern day name comes directly from its ancient name, Pergamum. Known for centuries for its monuments, it was a great city and served as the centre of Pergamum kingdom. Its location made it strategic in the Middle Ages and it was the centre of the Karesioğullari Principality before it finally became a part of the Ottoman State. The city's golden era was during the reign of Attalos I and his son Eumenes II, the time when an acropolis, theatre and other important projects were completed. It was an important city in the Roman period. The city experienced many developments during the reign of Hadrian (117-138 AD), and it was adorned with Roman works of art. In the Byzantine era after the spread of Christianity, Bergama was first under the influence of the bishopric of Ephesus, and then became a metropolis.
 
Climate
 
The Mediterranean Climate dominates the region. Summers are hot and dry while winters are mild and rainy.
 
 How to Get
 
By Road
 
The main bus station is at the south end of the town centre, although many buses coming from other cities will drop passengers off on the edge of town. There are regular services from Ayvalık (45 mins) and İzmir (2 hours), and one or two daily to Afyon (7 hours), Ankara (11 hours) and İstanbul (10 hours).
 
Bus Station Tel: (0232) 633 1519.
 
By Train
 
The nearest station is at Soma, 45km away, which is on the main line between İzmir and Bandırma.
 
 Where to Visit
 
BergamaArcheologyMuseum
 
The museum contains over 10,000 archaeological and ethnographic works. The archaeological artefacts belong to the Bronze, Archaic, Classic, Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine ages, and ethnographic exhibits consist of Ottoman relics and articles from the Bergama region. Exhibited in the outer garden of the museum are tombstones and sarcophaguses, while the inner garden contains pieces of architecture, reliefs, colossal statues and stone inscriptions.
 
Museum Tel: +90 232 631 28 83
 
Opening hours: 08.30-12.00 & 13.00-17.00, closed on Mondays.
 
ANCIENT CITIES
 
Acropolis
 
The Acropolis was built on an extremely steep hill, approached by a winding road ascending some 300m. In this uniquely designed city, religious, official, social and commercial buildings are all found side-by-side. On top of this hill, which has been inhabited since ancient times, are the palaces of the King of Pergamum. There are also five cisterns and an arsenal on the hill. Below these buildings is the Temple of Athena, as well as the Library and the Temple of Trajan. The Altar of Zeus was carefully placed below these buildings on a terrace. One of the steepest amphitheatres in the world is found here. The lowest section of the acropolis is the gymnasium and the Temple of Demeter. Because of the topographical location of the city and the course of the main street, all the buildings of the acropolis are line up in a north-south fashion, but the buildings all face west so that they can be seen from far away. The Altar of Zeus was not encircled with colonnades for the same reason. The Agora and Athena Temple also have an unobstructed view of the plain.
 
The Temple of Athena
 
The temple columns and architrave pieces are still in Berlin. The fact that the city's most important temple is the Temple of Athena, as it is in Izmir, Milet, Eriythrai, Foca and Assos as well, reflects the religious tradition of Western Anatolia. Eumenes II had a two-storey covered walkway built along the length of the eastern and northern sides in the Hellenistic style, to commemorate his successful war against the Seleucids, Celts and Macedonians.
 
Library
 
Adjacent to the sacred site of the Temple of Athena, are the remains of the famous Pergamum library. The library, whose entrance used to be on the top floor of the gallery, dates back to the reign of Eumenes II and contains a magnificent reading room measuring 13.53 x 15.35 metres. Equipped with wooden shelves, the library also contained a 3.5m high statue of Athena, which is now in the Berlin Museum. During the reign of Eumenes II, the holding capacity of the library multiplied immensely, and its only equal in the world was the Library of Alexander.
 
Arsenals
 
The military arsenal is on the north end of the acropolis, on the other side of the palaces and the Trajaneun, approximately 10m downhill. There are five compartments, all parallel to one another.
 
Trajaneum
 
This, the highest terrace in the acropolis, was made for the Roman Emperor Trajan, who was declared to be divine and before that, there was undoubtedly a Hellenistic structure on this site. Measuring 68 x 58 m, the temple sits perched upon a high terrace surrounded on three sides by covered promenades.  Hadrian had the temple built for his predecessor Trajan, but it is known that both of the emperors were worshipped here because the colossal heads of statues of Trajan and Handrian honouring them were found here. These items are also on display in the Museum of Berlin.
 
Theater
 
Built on a very steep slope, the Pergamum theatre is one of the Hellenistic period's finest architectural achievements. The steepest amphitheatre in western Anatolia, it has a capacity of 10,000 people.  In Hellenistic times the stage was made of wood; set up for the performances and then taken down again.
 
The Temple of Dionysos
 
The people of Pergamum built this very alluring temple on the north side of the 250m- long theatre terrace, specifically so it would dominate the landscape of the area. This well-preserved temple with its beautiful profile and altar is a prostylos built upon a podium in the Ionic style. This exquisite monumental structure with its distinctively Roman understanding of art, located at the end of a long road, was a big influence on the European Baroque school of architecture. The building underwent radical changes during the Roman era. The original Hellenistic and Roman pieces are in the Museum of Berlin.
 
The Altar of Zeus
 
Located about 25m below the lower terrace of the Temple of Athena, the altar was positioned at the very centre of a 69m x 77m area. It is likely that the area was open on every side so that it could be easily seen for miles around. Its reliefs are not background ornaments, but play just as important role as the altar itself. The altar, only the foundation of which is still in Pergamum, has been reconstructed and is today on display, with all of its reliefs, in the Berlin Museum.
 
Upper and Lower Agoras
 
The Agoras (Forum) are terraces located south of the Altar of Zeus and were built in the Hellenistic period in the style of Hermes, the god of commerce. Because of the levels of the surrounding land, the covered patios are three storeys on the outside, but only one inside. The Upper Agora was once the focal point of social and commercial activities in the city, although little remains of it today. South of the gymnasium is the Lower Agora, work and homes of the common people. The main street of the city passed right through the middle of the Agora, and below is the Temple of Demeter, the place where rituals for a better after life were practiced.
 
Gymnasiums
 
The magnificent gymnasium of Pergamum was located on three terraces, one above the other. Inscriptions have been found which indicate that the first floor was for children, the second floor for youth and the top floor for adults. The Upper Gymnasium is also known as the Ceremony Gymnasium. All three of these gymnasiums were built during the dynastic period during the second half of the 3rd century BC.
 
Asclepion
 
Asclepion translates as 'place of Aesklepios', the son of Apollo and the god of healing and health, and was an important health centre in Greco-Roman times. Among the types of therapy practiced here were mud baths, sports, theatre, psychotherapy and use of medicinal waters. A colonnaded street leads to the Asclepion, and to the left of the entrance is the temple of Asclepios. This domed temple with its exceptionally thick 3m walls was built in 150 AD, with donations made to the god of health. The interior was decorated with colorful marble mosaics, and surrounded by galleries on three sides, the Aesklepion has a passageway running through the centre alongside the sacred spring towards the therapy building. It is thought that patients were cured here by the sound of running water and by the persuasive hypnotic techniques used by the priests.
 
The Temple of Serapis
 
The biggest structure and best-known attraction in the town is the Kizil Avlu (Red Basilica), a temple made of red brick dedicated to the gods of Egypt. The temple lies in what is now the modern day town of Bergama. The two pools in the temple with towers indicate ritual cleansing rites and a religious background that was neither Greek nor Roman. The fact that it faces west, and is decorated with statues in an Egyptian style, indicates that it was possibly presented to Serapis, the Egyptian god of the underworld. In the Byzantine period, it was turned into a church by extensive remodelling, especially to the apse sections, and was dedicated to the Apostle John. In early Christianity, it was one of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor addressed by St John in the Book of Revelation, who referred to it as the throne of the Devil. Although a crumbling ruin, it still contains the remains of a mosque in one of the towers.
 
MOSQUES
 
Among the mosques located in Bergama are Ulu Mosque, Şadırvan Mosque, Seljuk Minaret, Kursunlu Mosque, Hacı Hekim Mosque in the bazaar,  Laleli Mosque on the road to Asclepion, Yeni Mosque and  Emir Sultan Minaret.
 
INNS
 
Çukur Inn
 
Between the leather shops and the Ekin Guild on Seftali Street, this caravanserai was probably built between 14th and 15th centuries, judging from the construction techniques used. It is obvious that there was also a vaulted bazaar here. There is window in the small section of the room made from horizontally laid bricks, and laid into a wall made from small stones and mortar. The small consoles under the eaves on one side of the room is a style specific to Pergamum, and there are eight brick-framed windows in this wall.
 
Taş (Stone) Inn
 
Located on Rustiye Mektebi Street, beside the Küplü Baths, the inscription above the door indicate that this caravanserai was built during the reign of Sultan Mehmet's son, Sultan Murat, in 835 (1432 according to the Gregorian calendar). The inscription is written on chiselled stone, underneath which is a low arch made in classical Turkish design, using nine stones with marble door-posts. Traces of arches in front of the door indicate that there was also a vault or dome here one time. Upon entering the door, on the right are vaulted rooms that were used as a barn, and a room reserved for writing documents. In places were the vaults have fallen, wooden coverings have been added.
 
HIGH PLATEAUS
 
The Kozak High plateau, 20 km from Bergama, can be reached by taking the Bergama-Ayvalık road.
 
THERMAL SPRINGS
 
Mahmudiye Thermal Spring
 
The radioactivity in these 26ºC waters is relatively high. There is no calcium in these sodium rich springs.
 
Geyiklidağ Thermal Spring
 
These hot springs, rich in sulphur, are used to treat people suffering from chronic infection syndrome, chronic upper respiratory infections and nephritis. Situated between Bergama and Kozak Bucak, there are no facilities around this area.
 
Güzellik Thermal Spring
 
Located 4 km from Bergama, Guzellik Thermal Spring has is a domed facility with two marble pools. Built in the reign of the Pergamum King Eumenes, the spring known as The Eskulap Baths has been famous for years. Today there are bungalows and a hotel belonging to Bergama adjacent to the forest where the spring is located. The temperature of the water is around 35ºC, and the sodium bicarbonate and sulphuric waters of this spring are good for those suffering from rheumatism, kidney disorders or cardiovascular conditions. In addition, people with oily skin are believed to benefit from its beautifying powers. Cleopatra is even rumoured to have visited the spring when she was in Pergamum, and owes a portion of her much celebrated beauty to the fact that she bathed here. The relatively high radioactivity of the water is equal to 1.5 eman.
 
Haydar Thermal Spring
 
North of Pergamum in the village of Ilica near Kozak, there are the ruins of a Roman bath, but the area is best known for the hot sulphurous spring waters, good for muscle aches and certain skin conditions.
 
Dereköy Spa
 
West of the district of Bergama, 15km from Altinova is a treatment centre with curative baths said to be beneficial for sufferers of several aches.
 
 What to Buy
 
The textile industry in Bergama is quite developed and it is especially famous for its rugs. Sheets, thin cotton cloth suitable for shirts, woollen bags, prayer rugs, and other carpets are woven here. The ceramic plate shops along the Bergama Creek are worth paying a visit. This industry, which for years has been passed on from father to son, is still a family business but bigger companies have also become involved in this important commerce.
 
 Don't Leave Without
 
Visiting Pergamum ancient city.
Bathing in the thermal springs
 
Buying some of Bergama's famous 'tulum' cheese and Turkish delight
 
 Contact Information
 
Bergama Provincial Directorate of Information: +90 232 633 18 62
 
Tourism Police: +90-232 631 28 38
 
Çeşme
 
Çeşme is a charming convergence of healing mineral springs, excellent beaches, crystal clear waters and sun, perfect for vacationers. It is located  94 km west of İzmir, on the very tip of the peninsula that bears its name. It was called  as the 'little harbor' by sailors, but in the course of time, the area became known as Çeşme (Fountain) due to the increasing number of fountains with ice - cold waters. The Erythrai Ancient City excavated in (the village of) Çeşme-Ildırı, the Castle, Caravanserai and many fountains from Ottoman Period and the other examples of civil architecture in the historical texture of the city compose the historical and archaeological remains of the area. 
 
Today the remains of the Acropolis can be seen on top of the hill which is in the city centre. Small statuettes offered to the Temple of Athena Pallas were found during the excavations in the Acropolis. One of the most important finds is the statue of a woman belonging to Archaic Age. It is on display in the İzmir Museum of Archaeology.
 
History
 
Çeşme, the port of Erythrai Ancient City, was called as Cyssus in Ancient Times. It was an important settlement area in the 6th century BC. The city developed its trade by establishing relations with Egypt, Cyprus and Western Countries.
 
Climate
 
The Mediterranean Climate is dominant in Çeşme. It is quite hot and exposed to the winds blowing from the north.
 
 How to Get
 
By Road
 
İzmir is 77 km away and is the regions transportation hub. There are two roads to Çeşme. One is a narrow asphalt road (77 km); the other is a modern superhighway (80 km). No matter what mode of transportation is used to get to Izmir, the tourist will find it easy to get the necessary transportation to Çeşme and Ildırı even on the busiest days of the tourist season. The Çeşme city center is the last stop on the bus and minibus routes. There are city buses and minibuses that provide transportation to Çiftlik, Dalyan, Alaçatı, Reisdere, Ovacık and the other beaches.
 
Bus Station Tel: (+90-232) 712 64 99
 
By Sea
 
There are ferryboats between Çeşme and Sakız Island. There are Turkish and Greek boats that provide passenger service for those tourists who want to land in Çeşme coming from Sakız Island. The journey takes one hour. For those tourists who want to depart from Turkey, there are passenger services to the Italian ports of Bari and Brindisi. Ferryboats traveling between İzmir-Çeşme-Kuşadası-Greece and Italy stop over in the Çeşme port.
 
Harbour Tel: (+90-232) 712 60 05
 
 Where to Visit
 
ÇeşmeCastle: The Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II had the castle built in 1508. It bears all the characteristics of Ottoman architecture. Inside the Castle, there is a museum. The finds unearthed in the village of Çeşme-Ildırı, are on display in this museum. This historical structure is used for the International Çeşme Music Festival which is held between July 2-7 every year. In front of the castle is the statue of Kaptan-ı Derya Gazi Hasan Pasha from Algeria. The statue is with a lion.
 
ÇeşmeMuseum
 
In the Çeşme Archeological Museum inside the Çeşme Castle, there is a total of 477 items on display. They were discovered in the district center of Alaçatı and the Kalemburnu region and consist of 320 archeological pieces, 126 ethnographic pieces and31 coins.
 
Museum Tel: (+90-232)712 66 09
Open hours to visit: 08.30-12.00/13.00-17.00
Open days to visit: Everday except Monday
 
Caravanserai:  The caravanserai, built in 1529 by Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent, consists of two storeys.The rectangular structure has a central courtyard with shops, storage depots and other rooms around the perimeter. This historical building is now being used as a hotel and provides excellent shopping for those interested in gift items, leather clothing or high-quality Turkish rugs. At night the restaurants, bars and discos surrounding the inn make for a lively atmosphere.
 
The Mastic Trees
 
Having been discovered 6000 years ago, the mastic trees of Çeşme are definitely worth seeing.Rakı (alcoholic drink) is being  flavoured with mastic.Also Mastic Jelly is made of these trees.
 
Besides its use in the kitchen, it is also used in the manufacture of medicine and paint. The doctors of ancient Greece made a variety of medicines from this plant for rabies, snake-bites, stomach, liver and intestinal conditions. After the 10th century, the fame of the mastic tree spread beyond Sakız Island to the wholeworld. The plant is now used for a variety of purposes in 25 different national pharmaceutical firms. It has has a very pleasant fragrance. Galinos says, "This is excellent for chronic bouts of coughing." Today six different products are made from the plant and it is a superior ulcer medicine, in addition to being good for high blood-pressure. It is also used for diabetes and high cholesterol. It is important in the treatment of cancer and cirrhosis. The importance and benefits of this plant originating on Sakız Island and spreading from here to the entire world is better understood day by day.
 
THERMAL SPRINGS
 
Çeşme Hot Springs: One of the most interesting and rare places in the world, the springs are right on the coast near the Çeşme Hot Springs beach on the İzmir - Çeşme road 5 km from Çeşme. The water temperature is around 58ºC and contains sodium chloride, potassium chloride and magnesium chloride. The waters are good for those suffering from chronic rheumatism, problems arising from poor metabolism, such as gout and obesity, as well as rickets, skin conditions, gynecological disorders, and liver and urinary tract conditions. There are modern facilities in the vicinity of the Hot Springs, which even have thermal pools and baths inside them. Transportation to the springs is provided by the Çeşme buses which leave from Üçkuyular.
 
Şifne (Reisdere) Thermal Spring and Mud Baths: Located 5 km northeast of the Çeşme Hot Springs on a small peninsula in the Şifne bay, the thermal springs have accommodations and restaurants nearby.There is a large common pool with benches in the water. The water contains sodium, chlorine and calcium and the 38ºC waters are radioactive (5.3 eman). The waters are good for people with rheumatism, rickets, gynecological disorders,
urinary tract infections, stomach and intestinal conditions and skin conditions like eczema and boils.
 
THE YACHT HARBORS
 
The province of Izmir, especially the southern tip of the Çeşme peninsula is one of the primary yacht circuits in the country. The route from Çeşme to Kuşadası has the most developed yachting infrastructure. The harbor at Çeşme can be used by both yachts and commercial vessels and has docking space for two small cargo vessels. The yacht section of the harbor was designed to accommodate 150 yachts. In the winter many fishing boats use the harbor while yachts predominate in the summer.
 
AlaçatıHarbor: Located south of Alaçatı, it is paradise for yachting enthusiasts with its rows of small coves. The dock can hold up to 80 boats and offers a variety of services for yachts.
 
Çeşme-AltınyunusYachtHarbor: Having a capacity for up to 70 big boats and 40 small ones, this harbor offers every type of yacht maintenance. The harbor is able to provide water, electricity, telephones, maintenance, repair and wintering services.
 
SPORTS ACTIVITIES
 
Camp - Caravan: The Grand Harbor (Büyük Liman) and Paşa Harbor coves are excellent places to camp and have many summer residences. The natural beaches and camping areas in the area of Ildırı, the ancient city of Erythrai, are perfect for those wanting a touch of history and nature.
 
Hunting: Çeşme is an excellent place for those who like hunting. The most interesting and exciting hunt is without a doubt wild hogs. After permission is received from the proper authorities, everyone can participate in this thrilling venture. There are also quite a few partridges and rabbits in Çeşme. These animals are most plentiful in the hunting season between September and December, which is the hunting season. Those interested in hunting can visit Çeşme during the winter as well.
 
Wind Surfing: Alaçatı is one of the most interesting surfing areas in Europe and offers a variety not found in many places. It is located in a V-shaped cove with crystal clear water and is surrounded with lush vegetation. The changing winds and perfect conditions make it one of the best surfing areas in Europe.
 
The best thing about Alaçatı is that the winds blow from the land to the sea , and no matter how hard the wind blows the waves in the sea stay about the same. Therefore Alaçatı is a safe place for wind surfing.
 
 What to Eat
 
The local cuisine is made up of mostly seafood. You should definitely try the sea bass, bream, octopus and oysters while there. Other Çeşme delicacies include "şeker işi" served with a special fig jam, "kuru sıkma" (a flat wrappedbread), goose drumsticks, almond milk and a grilled sandwich called "kumru." The delicious melons and artichokes raised here are exported throughout the world.
 
 Don't Leave Without
 
Seeing the International Çeşme Music Festival,
 
Bathing in the thermal springs of Çeşme,
 
Tasting the olives, and the wine made from the grapes of Çeşme.
 
 Contact Information
 
Head Official's Office: (+90-232)712 66 15 - 712 68 41
 
Provincial Directorate of Information: (+90-232) 712 66 53
 
Municipality: (+90-232) 712 71 58
 
Police: (+90-232) 723 02 34
 
Hospital: (+90-232) 712 07 77
 
 
Foça
 
Foça, which is 70 km. north - east of İzmir, is one of the most important centers amongst 12 Ion cities, established at Aegean coasts by Ions. Foça, besides its historical and archeological importance, is a mythological settlement whose name is mentioned in Homeros epic.
 
History
 
One of the most important centers, established by Ions, who have established numerous settlements here, including Smyrna, and who are escaped from Dor invasion of Greece, is Foça. Antic Foça city is included by 12 Ion union, is at the Aiolis region. Foça, who took Antic city Phokaia name from "seals", was an important harbor and had an important naval forces at their era. Foça, had established colonies in cities at eastern costs of Marsala and Spain, Velia near Pastum and Alain of Corsica with its naval fleet. Foça had lived Persia, Alexander the Great, Genevians and Ottoman eras.
 
Phokaia city, which had entered into development period, beginning from 7th century B. C., had shown great improvement in sailing according to "Father of History", Heredot. Phokaians, who were using fast ships with 50 shovels and 500 passenger transportation power, were the first Helens who go for long sea voyage. They have introduced Adriatic Etruria, İberia and Tartessos to Helen world.
 
Climate
 
Totally Mediterranean climate is reigning in Foça. It passes as hot and dry during summers and warm and rainy during winters. It takes a windy sea weather from three sides. Average temperature of summer months is 26 degrees, and its sea water temperature is 22 degrees. Hottest months of summer are July and August.
 
 Where to Visit
 
Siren Rocky Place
 
It is mentioned in Homeros epic, and described as rocks to where ships who loose their way crashes. Biggest one of these rocky place, composed of islands which reminds like seal fishes is Orak Island Rocky Place.
 
Şeytan Hamamı (Satan's Hamam)
 
Tomb type structure at the feet of Çan peak, is known as Şeytan Hamamı (Satan's Hamam). It is 2 km. away from province center.
 
CASTLES
 
BeşKapılarCastle
 
This antic castle is given to Manuel Zacharna from Genevese by Michel Paleoloc and its ramparts are repaired by Genevan people within time. After join of Phokaia to Ottoman land on 1455, ramparts are repaired and nine of them have been equipped with towers which can be spotted today. Part, which is used as open air Theater today in Beş Kapılar was "boathouse". According to the inscription over entrance door, this repair is done between 1538 - 1539 by Silahtar İskender Ağa, woodsman of the Sultan Mustafa Han, who was Saruhan State Principal between 1533 and 1541, son of Magnificient Süleyman.
 
ExternalCastleCastle
 
Referred as "External Castle or Genevese Castle" at "Castle Bay" at south west of Foça, according to the sources, is constructed as a cutthroat by Ottomans on a strategic point to guard the region on 1678. Castle which is on a cape, is separated from the continent via a huge trench with the aim of guarding. During underwater archeological studies, stone shots are found at the bottom of the sea in front of the castle. It is thought that these shots are fired via catapults from castle to enemy ships.
 
MOSQUES
 
Fatih Mosque
 
It is on the Eski Adliye Sokak within Castle. Mosque is a structure which had lost its uniqueness while reaching today. On 1455, after the conquest of Foça, it was constructed by Fatih Sultan Mehmet. During its initial construction, it was holding the classical Ottoman architectural style.
 
Kayalar Mosque
 
It is within castle. Construction date and constructing person not known mosque, is showing all of the characteristics of late period Ottoman architecture style. A formerly added water tank with fountain (Şadırvan) is present at the west of the structure.
 
Hafız Süleyman Ağa Small Mosque
 
Structure, known as Süleyman Ağa Mescidi among public, is constructed by Foça Castle Guard, Hamzaoğlu Mustafa on 1548. But it is understood from today's appearance that structure had been variously repaired during latter periods.
 
TURKISH BATHS
 
Only two Turkish baths could survive from Ottoman period. Both of them are in the Atatürk District. Turkish bath on the corner of 115 and 116 streets, can be classified as dome at the middle, horizontal heated, double gaped Turkish Bath. Its undressing part is completely demolished. Other Turkish bath in 118 numbered street, is highly damaged. It has a different architecture compared with known Turkish Baths, it is thought that this is constructed later than the other one.
 
FOÇAISLANDS
 
This is an island group, composed of six desolate islands in front of Foça. These are: Orak Island, İncir Island, Kartdere Island, Fener Island, Hayırsız Island and Metalik Island. There is a long bushy beach at the south coast of Orak Island, and also sheer cliffs with 80 meter high in Orak and Hayırsız, Kartdere Islands. Especially İncir Island is used as picnic area and beach by tourists and natives. Islands and surrounding bays, shelters one of the last Mediterranean seal colonies in Turkey.
 
Taş Ev (Rock House)
 
This rocky monument tomb rising at the side of the road 10 km. away from Foça, is half cut. Structure, constructed under Persia impact, is constructed under Lycia - Lydia tradition, and dated on 4th century B. C..
 
SEA FISHES
 
Friends of sailors of Foça, who did not leave sailors alone during sailors' struggles against sea for centuries, are sweet seals. Mediterranean seals, whose total number in the world is approximately between 350 and 400, are only living in Turkey, Greece and North - Western African coasts. Some portion of Mediterranean seals are settled in islands surrounding Foça. In spite of increasing tourism and fishing, they are using the caverns, coasts in these islands with the aim of bringing forth juveniles, to bring up their juveniles, to rest and sun themselves. Mediterranean seals, whose name is " Monachus Monachus" in Latin, needs to land, and signs of human on their residential areas annoy them. This specie is one of the 12 mammals who are under the danger of annihilation of its generation on the world.
 
For protection of Mediterranean seals living in Foça islands, it is forbidden to come near more than 2 miles to islands between Aslanburnu and Deveboynu Cape, also to come near more than 100 meters to Siren Rocky Places and Orak Island, on where seals are seen.
 
SPORTIVE ACTIVITIES
 
Fishing
 
Income of Foça public is based on fishing as much as tourism. The only unchanged truth of Foça's people for centuries is to earn their living from sea. Foça's people, who are fisherman like their ancestors are trusting and free. Region, according to richness of fish kinds, is preserving its importance at Aegean coasts. It is possible to find tasteful fishes, like red mullet, coral fish, Chrysophrys aurata, sea bass, grey mullet, whiting, as daily, fresh and cheap by means of fishermen of Foça. While fishermen are sipping their teas during the redness of sunset, fishes collected by their nets are being prepared in restaurants for serving to the visitors of Foça.
 
 What to Eat
 
Traditional Foça kitchen includes all of the meals, made at Western Anatolian coasts and Aegean islands with its general characteristics. In addition to this, some of Foça unique tastes cooked with fish kinds, sea foods, olive, olive oil, artichoke and wild herbs are at the following: Grilled Sardine, Fish with Yogurt, Stuffed Calamary, Stuffed Fish, Fish Soap, Fish Paça, Artichoke with Lamb Meat, Stuffed Artichoke with Olive Oil can be listed between meals of the region.
 
Great salads, appetizers and pastry fillings are prepared from herbs like arapsaçı, rezene, tarakotu ( iğnelik ), turpotu, radika, ısırgan otu, ebegümeci, wild herbs which grew up in Foça and environment.
 
 Don't Leave Without
 
Seeing Stone Home monumental tombs,
 
Visiting Foça Islands giving shelter to Mediterranean seals,
 
Eating fresh sea crops.
 
Aliağa: Aliağa, which is 60 km. north of İzmir, have signes of İzmir and Bergama civilizations. 4 of the 12 cities, composing the biggest and most important ones among Aiol cities, whose number is exceeding 30 at Aegean coasts, are within Aigaia, Kyme, Myrna and Gryneion province territories.
 
 
Dikili: Dikili is a pretty province and popular summer resort, around 120km north of Izmir. Candarli is nearby, and the area is full of natural beauty as well as historical interest. There is a crater lake in Medivenli village, and pine groves and ancient caverns in Demirtas and Delitas. The area is also famous for its hot springs, which can be found in Nebiler, Bademli and Kocaoba villages. The port at Dikili is large enough for three passenger ships, and is a good transport connection.
 
 
Seferihisar: Teos antic city at Sığacık region, Karaköse ruins at Doğanbey - Gerenalanı region, former settlement area constructed within castle and castle, constructed by Ottomans at Sığacık, monumental structures of Seljukian and Ottoman period at province center of the province, whose settlement history reaches till 1000 B. C., are composing the archeological and historical source potential of the region. Seferihisar has beautiful beaches and bays with its 27 km. Coastal band.
 
 
Menderes: Menderes province, which draws attention with its satsuma, beautiful bays and historical values, is 20 km. away from İzmir. Lebedos Antic City is at west of province at Ürkmez region. Ruins of Kolophon, Klaros, Notion and Lebedos Antic Cities, which are on Menderes - Seljukian road as adjacent to each other, are composing the important archeological sources of the province. Gümüldür borough is the producer region of Satsuma, which is a world famous kind of tangerine. Özdere is one of the nine big tourism regions of Aegean Region, and it is a tourism borough where amateur fishermen can fish besides its clear sea and coast. Various colored and shaped beads which are produced in natives at Görece Village of Menderes, are drawing attention of national and international tourists.
 
 
Karaburun: Karaburun is at the northern point of the Urla Peninsula, and its northern and western coasts have beautiful bays surrounding the Izmir bay. There were settlements in this area which date back to the Stone Age, and excavations have indicated it was a developed cultural centre during the Hittite period, then a trading centre during the Aiol, Lydia and Roman civilisations. It is now the newest suburb of Izmir, and has a couple of small guest houses and fish restaurants. Its most dramatic feature is the setting, with villages and orchards clinging to the steep rock face. There is a bus service in the area, although private vehicles offer more possibilities for exploring.
 
 
Urla: Urla is in the middle of the peninsula and holds all the characteristics of the Aegean. It lies 38km west of Izmir and used to be a cultural centre with remains unearthed dating back to the Hitties. It was originally the site of the Ionian city of Clazomenae, with probably the oldest regularly used port in the world. Pieces of art and sculpture found during excavations are now exhibited in the Louvre, Athens National Museum and Izmir Archaeology Museum.
 
 
Torbalı: An ancient Ionian city, famous for its wines and religious centre, has three marble alters devoted to the Roman Emperor August and his foster child Germanikys, in an ancient theatre which dominates the valley. Pieces of art found during excavations are exhibited in Izmir and Ephesus museums. The town has the remains of an old port and a few holiday complexes, and is set attractively against a pine forest.
 
 
Ödemiş: North of Odemis, which is 113km southeast of Izmir, are the ruins of Hypaiapa. The historical importance of the region began with Birgi, west of Odemis, which was the capital during the Aydinogullari period and contained outstanding examples of Seljuk and Ottoman architecture. Birgi has been on the World Cultural Heritage list since 1994, and points of interest here include Cakiraga Mansion, Imam-i Birgivi Medrese and Sultan Sah Mausoleum.
 
 
Tire: One of the largest towns in the area, Tire is 82km southeast of Izmir and lies at the foot of the Aydin Mountains. Its long cultural heritage includes periods under the Hittites, Frygians, Lydians, Persians, Romans and Byzantines, and developed its strong links with the economy during the Ottoman period. The town has an attractive old quarter with many impressive examples of Islamic architecture, and a lively Tuesday market influenced by the gypsy population in the surrounding villages.
 
 
Kemalpaşa: The historical background of Kemalpasa, which lies 29km west of Izmir, dates back to 1300 BC. It was host to the Akkads, Hitties, Seljuk and Ottoman civilisations, and was a resort between the Art and Ion cities during Roman and Byzantine times. The only remains from the Hittites in the Aegean region is the Karabel relief, which is in the province. Previously known in ancient times as Nymphaion, the town lies at the foot of Nif mountain at 200m altitude, and is best known for its cherries and pine forests.
 
 How to Get
 
By Road : Most long distance buses come into the huge bus station, around 8km northeast of the city centre, and there are public buses and taxis to and from the city. Izmir is connected to every part of the country, with major destinations having a service at least every hour. These include: Istanbul (10 hours), Ankara (9 hours), Antalya (9 hours), Bursa (7 hours), Marmaris (6 hours), Bodrum (4 hours) and Konya (8 hours).
 
From Uckuyular bus station, 7km southwest of Konak, there are regular services to Cesme (90 mins) and Seferihisar (1 hour).
 
Main Bus Station Tel: (0232) 472 1010. Fax: 472 0418
Uckuyuklar Bus Station Tel: (0232) 259 8862
 
By Rail : Izmir has two railway stations: Basmane in the city centre is the major terminal for intercity trains, and Alsancak in the north is mainly a commuter and local route, also stopping at Menderes Airport every hour.
 
The main intercity services include: Ankara (Mavi Tren is the fastest at 14 hours), Denizli (3 express trains daily, 5-6 hours) and Isparta (9 hours). Trains for Istanbul connect with a ferry at Bandirma.
 
Basmane Station Tel: (0232) 484 8638
Alsancak Station Tel: (0232) 458 3131
 
By Sea : There is a weekly ferry from Istanbul-Izmir (19 hours), operating at weekends, and one or two weekly ferries between Izmir and Venice (67 hours). All ferries dock at the Alsancak Ferry Terminal, 2km north of the city centre.
 
Alsansak Yeni Liman (terminal) Tel: (0232) 464 8864 / 89. Fax: 464 7834.
 
By Air : Adnan Menderes Airport, 16km south of the city centre, has several daily flights to Istanbul, Ankara and Antalya. There are also regular flights from many European cities. Airport buses go to and from the city centre, and there are hourly trains to Alsancak Station.
 
Airport Tel : (0232) 274 2187. Fax: 274 2071
 
 Where to Visit
 
Kemeraltı Bazaar : The huge bazaar in the city centre stretches from the coast road to the Konak area, and is a major shopping centre with a vast array of goods inside. It combines modern businesses, shops and cafes, with antiques, dried fruit, household and leather goods in old alleyways with vaults and domes.
 
Inside the bazaar is one of the most interesting structures of Izmir: Kizlaragasi Hani is an Ottoman caravanserai inside the Halim Aga Bazaar and was completed in 1745. This covered market sells hand-made products, carpets, leather and souvenirs. There are many entrances to the markets, from Basmane, Konak and Anafartalar. Konak is one of the oldest areas of the city, with most of the buildings that survived the great fire, although the traditional areas are gradually being modernised. This is the location of the city’s landmark, the Saat Kulesi (Ottoman clock tower) decorated with tiles.
 
Asansör (Elevator) : The elevator was constructed by Jewish businessman Nesim Levi in 1907, in order to make life easier for the local residents going to their mansions on top of the hill. These days tourists use it to admire the views of the old streets and houses of Mithatpasa. Located in the heart of Izmir’s old Jewish quarter, it is housed in a 50m-high brick tower and after refurbishment in 1992 it now contains a café on the top floor, and the original hydraulics are exhibited on the ground floor. In its heyday in the 1930s, it also contained a theatre, cinema, refreshment stall and photographer’s shop.
 
Kültürpark : The huge Kulturpark in the city centre is one of the densest green areas in Izmir, covering 30 hectares. Within it are a zoo, artificial lake, parachute tower, open-air theatre and a collection of bars and cafes. This has been the venue of the International Izmir Fair every August since 1936.
 
Botanic Garden : Within the grounds of Ege University are the Botanical Gardens, one of the best in the country. There are around 3000 species of plants from the tropical regions to the Alps, many of which are kept under artificial conditions. The arboretum has hundreds of species of trees and bushes, and the herbarium centre contains dried plant samples that are preserved for the use of scientific research.
 
 Museums, Ancient Cities
 
İzmir ArcheologyMuseum : This was one of the first museums to be established in Western Anatolia, and has exhibits unearthed from excavations in the Izmir region. In addition to Greek and Roman remains, friezes, ancient terracotta, Lycian sarcophagi, and Bronze age pottery, there is also art from the Ion, Greek, Roman and Byzantine periods. The entire collection is spread over three floors and a garden floor.
 
Museum Tel : (+90-232) 489 07 96
Address: Bahri Baba Parkı Konak
Opening hours: 08.30 - 12.00 & 13.00 - 17.00, closed Mondays.
 
EthnographyMuseum : Opposite the Archaeological Museum, the Ethnographic Museum building was constructed on an inclined terrace in the early 19th century, in a Neoclassical style. It used to be St Roch’s Hospital for treating patients with the plague, was repaired by the French in 1845 and then became a centre for an organisation caring for poor Christian families. It was restored between 1985 and 1988, and then re-opened as the museum.
 
Inside, the colourful displays reveal local crafts, homes and folk culture from the 19th century. These include a reconstruction of the first Ottoman pharmacist in the area, and part of a traditional house, bridal chamber and kitchen. There are explanations and displays relating to camel wrestling, pottery production and even a kiln to make the blue beads to ward off the evil eye.
 
Museum Tel : (+90-232) 489 07 96
Address: Bahri Baba Parkı - Konak
Opening hours: 08.30 - 12.00 & 13.00 - 17.00, closed Mondays.
 
İzmir AtatürkMuseum : This building, on the huge waterfront street Birinci Kordon, was constructed as a residence between 1875 and 1880. Ataturk stayed here whilst participating in the Izmir Economic Congress on 17th February 1923, and the building was presented to him as a gift in 1926 and then opened to the public as a museum after his death. The mansion contains furnishings and ornaments from Ataturk’s era. Museum
 
Tel: (0232) 464 4805
Opening hours: 08.30 - 12.00 & 13.00 - 17.00, closed Mondays.
 
ÖdemişArcheologyMuseum : There are exhibition halls, administrative departments, library, warehouses, photography hall, atölye and laboratory room. 12.000 years of age pieces of art coming from Prehistoric Age are exhibiting in the Museum, opened on 1987.
 
Museum Tel: (+ 90 - 232) 545 11 84
Address: Ödemiş
Open hours to visit: 08.30 - 12.00 / 13.00 - 17.00 Open days to visit: Everyday except Monday
 
Tire Museum : In the museum composed of an archeological and ethnographic hall 3592 pieces of archeological pieces of art, 3080 ethnographic pieces of art, 21980 coins, 78 pieces of archive documents, 16 pieces of manuscripts and other pieces of art.
 
Museum Tel: (+ 90 - 232) 512 18 62
Address: Cumhuriyet Mah. Şanizade Meydanı
Open hours to visit: 08.30 - 12.00 13.00 - 17.00 Open days to visit: Everyday except Monday
 
Bayraklı (Former İzmir) : Located at the northeast of Izmir Bay, Bayrakli was the first known settlement of Izmir, which archaeological excavations indicate was probably around 3000 BC. There is a structure from the 7th century BC, situated on the upper part of Bayrakli, which was the grave of the mythological king, Tantalus.
 
Kadifekale (VelvetCastle) : The old fortress on the hill at the southeast of the city offers unrivalled views of the surrounding area, and at its best at sunset, when the lights start to come on and the call to prayer echoes from many mosques. It was founded in the 4th century BC by Lysimakhos, one of Alexander the Great’s generals, and was strategically placed in view of the harbour and the city. It is possible to walk up to the citadel from the Agora, through narrow streets and old houses, and it remains open although is not lit at night. On the walls of the ruins are Roman and Byzantine engravings and the remaining structures include the south walls and five towers at the west, which date back to the Medieval Age.
 
Agora : Within the crowded streets of Konak, the agora used to be the venue for political gatherings and elections. It was built on the orders of Alexander the Great, probably in the 2nd century BC, and is the only surviving pre-Ottoman monument, although what remains was the reconstruction by the Romans after a devastating earthquake. There are 14 Corinthian columns, vaulted chambers and hundreds of Ottoman graveyards in the eastern section. Many treasures unearthed during excavations are now exhibited in the Archaeology Museum.
 
 Mosque, Church and Synagogues
 
The most important mosques in the city are Hisar, Yali (Konak), Salepcioglu and Kestane Pazari Mosque. Others in the city include Sadirvan, Basdurak, Kemeralti (built in1812), Faik Pasa, (repaired in 1842), Han Bey, Hatuniye Mosque, Seyh, Fettah, Yali, Ali Aga, Selvili Mescit, Abdullah Efendi and Iki Cesmelik Mosque.
 
St. Polycarp Church, in Gaziosmanpasa, is the oldest church in Izmir and was lavishly rebuilt in the 19th century by the French. St Polycarp was Smyrna’s first bishop, and when he refused to follow the orders of the Romans to renounce his faith, he was burnt at the stake.
 
Religion Tourism
 
İsa Bey Mosque ( İzmir-Selçuk): The mosque, which is on the Ayasuluk hill, at west slope of the St. Jean Bassilica, is a Seljukian piece of art. It was constructed in 1375 by Aydınoğlu İsa Bey.
 
Hisar Mosque (İzmir-Center): Built on the center of the Kemeraltı-Hisarönü square in 1592, the mosque was the biggset mosque in İzmir.It is among the monumental mosques having one storeies.It was built by hewn stones. Ahuge onein the middle, it was encircled with many small domes.Interior sections of the mosque reflects the most precious styles of Ottoman art.
 
Birgi (İzmir-Ödemiş): It is 9km from Ödemiş. Having the outstanding samples of Ottoman and Seljuk architecture, the city has been added to the list of World Heritage List.<br> The structure includes İmam-ı Birgivi Tomb and Medresseh, Darül Hadis Medresseh, Güdük Minare Mescit( small mosque), Ulu Mosque and Aydınoğulları Tomb.
 
İzmirChurch (Center): It is said that İzmir Church, which is the second one of the seven churches mentioned in Holy Bible, means "Followed" and "Be Faithful". The period, when İzmir Church was important, is II. and III. Centuries A. D. Ruins of this church are mentioned as at Çeşmelik district, at the sameplace with St. Polikarp church by some archeologists and Christian religious writers.
 
Karataş Beth Israel Synagogue: The synagogue, which is on Mithat Paşa Boulvard, is witnessing marriage ceremonies with its last century particular Victoria style architecture.
 
House of Virgin Mary (İzmir- Selçuk): It is thought to be constructed during IV. Century A. D. Of this place, also named as "Panaya Kapulu" by Christians on 420 meters high Mount Bülbül which is nine kilometers away from Selçuk. On the niche part, which remembers an oven, precious heart of Jesus Christ is represented. Such before the crucifixion, Jesus Christ entrusted his mother to his friend and disciples.As St. Jean thought that to stay in Jerusalem would be dangerous for Virgin Mary after the curicifixion of Jesus Christ, he took her to here. Though these rumours are confused with legends, there are evidances proving that these have great deals to do with reality. Having undertaken a sacred mission as to spread Christianity, St. Jean chose Efes as the biggest city of the era, and secluded Virgiv Mary at a hut in a wood of trees very close together on the skirts Bülbül Mountain because he did not want Virgin Mary to live in a place where idol worshippers would annoyed her. Every day St. Jean secretly visited her and took to her food. It has been considered that Virgin Mary lived and died there when she was 101years old. Then St. Jean buried Virgin Mary again at this secret place which was unknown to anyone except himself. After Christinaity became world wide, a church with "Cross" like layout was constructed of this sacred place of Virgin Mary.
 
This house is declared as the holy place of Christianity by Papacy on 1967. A ceremony is organized here during first sunday following 15th of August, and people, who came here become hadji.
 
St. Jean Basilica (İzmir-Selçuk): Perched on Ayasuluk hill, it was constructed by Byzantium Emperor Justinien as a dedcation to St. Jean in VI A.D. In the middle of the basilica, under the dome and at the eastern side of the grave of St. Jean which is lower than the ground level, there are the places of the priests. These structures are separeted from the church with their half squares. At the northern section of the cemetery, monograms of the Emperor Justinien and his wife were perched on a restored pedestals of a church decorated with the frescos of the paintings of the saints.
 
Bergama Church (İzmir-Bergama): It is among one of the seven churches mentioned in the Holy Bible and the location of which is known and the basilica known as "Red Courtyard"by the people of the Pergamum carries the meanings of "Serapien"( as it was devoted to the God Serapis) and "Where on earth or in heavens". After the death of Jesus Christ, it had a crucial postion between the years 313-500.
 
Other churches include;
 
Dome Cathedral St. John
Sehit Nevres Bul.29, Alsancak.
 
Santa Maria
Halit Ziya Bul. No: 67
 
Notre Dame De St. Rosarei
1481 Sokak. No: 8, Alsancak
 
Notre Dame De Lourders
81 Sokak No: 10, Goztepe
 
St. John the Bapist
Kemalpasa Caddesi. No: 15, Buca
 
Santa Maria
Kars Okulu Sk. No: 5, Bornova,
 
St. Anthony of Pauda
1610 Sokak. No: 5, Bayrakli
 
St. Helen
1729 Sokak. No: 53, Karsiyaka
 
St. John's Church (Anglican)
Talat Pasa Bulvari, Alsancak
 
St. Mary Magdalene (Protestant)
Hurriyet Caddesi No:18, Bornova
 
Aya Fotini (Orthodox)
1374 Sokak. No: 24, Alsancak (Open for only festivals)
 
Synagogues; Bet Yisrael
Mithatpasa Caddesi. No: 265
 
Sinyora Iveret
927 Sokak. No: 7, Mezarlikbasi
 
Saar Asamayim
1390 Sokak. No: 4, Alsancak
 
Berkholim
Ikicesmelik Caddesi. No: 40
 
 Beaches
 
The province of Izmir has a huge coastline on the Aegean, with beaches and areas for watersports easily accessible from the city by private or public transport from Uckuyular bus station. Good beaches include Pamucak, Urla, Gulbahce, Cesme, Altinkum, Foca and Dikili.
 
 Yacht Ports
 
The area south of the Cesme peninsula is a significant part of the yachting routes, and the area between Cesme and Kusadasi is especially popular. Just south of Cesme is Alacati Harbour, which can accommodate 80 yachts and has many facilities. Urla Harbour can accommodate 20 boats with another 175 in the fisherman’s shelter, and 80 in Ozbekkoy harbour.
 
 Thermal Springs
 
Balçova Thermal Springs : Mentioned in Homer’s epics as Agamemnon Thermal Springs, and in the writings of geographer Strabon, these waters have been used to cure various ailments. Members of Alexander the Great’s army used the spring to heal their wounds, which made their healing powers famous. The hot water mud baths and mineral springs, which contain sodium bicarbonate and chloride, are said to cure upper respiratory inflammation, nephritis, rheumatism, skin diseases and metabolism problems. The resort is 10km west of Izmir, and there is accommodation available at the resort.
 
Thermal Tourism Centers
 
Şifne Thermal Resort
 
Location: 6km east of Cesme, and 80km west of Izmir.
Transport: Cesme is easily accessible by bus, and the nearest airport is at Izmir.
Water temperature: Ilica Spring - 42° C. Buyuk Icme Spring - 19° C. Kucuk Icme Spring - 25°C
pH value: Ilica Spring - 6.76; Buyuk Icme Spring - 6.52; Kucuk Icme Spring - 6.56
Physical and chemical properties: The various springs contain one or all of the following properties: Hyperthermal, hypertonic, chlorine, sodium, magnesium
 
Recommended: Applications Bathing, drinking and mud treatments
 
Helps to heal: Bathing and mud treatments - rheumatic ailments, gynaecological problems and poor metabolism, problems with liver, gall bladder and pancreas. >
 
Accommodation: Turban Ilica Hotel -120 Beds.
 
Balçova Thermal Resort (Agememnon)
 
Location: 10km west of Izmir and west of Balcova, near the historical site of Agememnon.
Transport: 25 km from Izmir Adnan Menderes Airport, and 10km from centre of Izmir. The closest beach is 18 km.
Water temperature: Spring and well water vary between 45°C -140°C.
pH value: 6.4
Physical and chemical properties: Chlorine, bicarbonate, sodium, calcium, carbon dioxide and fluoride. Hyperthermal (62 °C) and Hypertonic (30.68 milimol/l.).
 
Helps to heal: Rheumatic ailments, digestive tract, eye ailments, poor metabolism, liver and gall bladder problems and heart and circulatory conditions, and nervous disorders.
 
Accommodation: Balcova Agamemnon Thermal Facilities (3-star) - 435 beds. Thermal Princess Hotel (5-star) - 630 beds.
 
Çeşme Thermal Resort
 
Location: In Cesme, 70km west of Izmir.
Transportation: Well connected by bus, and nearest airport at Izmir.
Water temperature: 55°C
pH value: 6.58
Physical and chemical properties: Hyperthermal, hypertonic, chlorine, sodium, magnesium
Recommended: Applications Bathing and soaking
Helps to heal: Effective in treating rheumatic ailments, gynaecological disorders and poor metabolism.
Accommodation: Turban Cesme Hotel - 420 beds. Altinyunus Holiday Village - 1030 beds.
 
Bayındır Hot Springs : The group of thermal springs 8 km north of Bayındır and around 60km southeast of Izmir, comprises of Derekoy and Ergendi springs, both of which are roughly 40ºC. The waters contain sulphur and sodium bicarbonate, and are said to heal rheumatism and skin diseases.
 
Menemen Hot Springs : The hot springs around Menemen, a few kilometres northwest of Izmir, are actually bubbling inside a cavern. The rocks have ancient engravings, and the remains of the spring have formed a natural bath with waters said to heal broken bones and poor blood circulation.
 
Ilıcagöl Hot Spring : Northwest of Menemen is a lake fed by hot springs, and mud baths with the warm sulphur water are said to heal rheumatism, skin diseases, and problems affecting the urethra.
Dikili Hot Spring : The hot spring at Nebiler is 4km west of the Dikili-Ayvalik road, and contains hydro-acetate ions.
 
Tavşan Adası Hot Spring : The springs are 15 km southwest of Tire and around 100km southeast of Izmir, near the village of Uzgur. The hot waters of this resort are used for bathing - good for rheumatism, skin diseases and gynaecological disorders, and drinking - lung and nutrient metabolic irregularities.
 
 Sports Activities
 
Hunting Tourism : Foreigners can only hunt in parties organised by Turkish travel agencies that have been authorised by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. These agencies provide all the information concerning seasons, authorised zones, permits, weapons and ammunition. A list of agencies can be obtained from the Union of Travel Agencies (TURSAB).
 
For more information, contact:
 
- Forest Ministry, National Parks and Wildlife General Directorate, Gazi Tesisleri No 11, Gazi, Ankara.
 
Tel: (312) 221 17 69 / 212 63 00 Fax: 222 5140
 
-Youth and Sport General Directorate, Hunting and Marksman Federation
 
Ulus İshanı A Blok 4 Kat No 404, Ulus, Ankara.
 
Tel: (312) 310 6160/310 3960. Fax: 310 6160
 
Around Izmir there are wild boar, especially near Cesme and the Karaburun peninsula, and wild goats. Visitors to check which animals are forbidden to be hunted.
 
Mountaineering : Mountaineering, which is developed recently among youths and students in İzmir region, is dealt and improved as a sport. Balçova Hill and Mount Yamanlar, where Balçova cable railway is present, are the places where mount sports are performed as amateur. Beyond this, Madran Mountains, which at the north part of the mountain chains, which are steeply descending to İzmir bay, are serving very adequate possibilities in connection with mountaineering with 2000 meters exceeding height.
 
Youth Tourism : There are forestry and youth camps in İzmir, where youth can benefit from.
 
İzmir TourismTrainingCenter
 
TUREM - The TourismTrainingCenters of The Ministry of Culture and Tourism
 
When classes are not in session, the Tourism Training Centers under the Ministry of Tourism and the Tourism Training Administration are open to Turkish citizens and youth visiting from abroad.
 
When: They are open from April15 to August 14, 2001.
 
Who is eligible: All young people between the ages of 18-26. Foreigners must have a IYHF, IYC or ISIC card, while Turkish citizens must present their school identity card.
 
The SelçukTourismTrainingCenter
 
Address: Belediye Karşısı, Otogar Bitişiği Selçuk/İZMİR
Tel: (+90-232) 892 26 51
 
The rooms have showers and toilets and Ping-Pong is available.
 
The İzmir ÖzerTürkTourismTrainingCenter
 
Address: Sakarya Cad. No: 147 Teleferik Yanı Balçova- İZMİR
Tel: (+90-232) 259 0425
 
The rooms have shower and toilets. There are volleyball, basketball and tennis courts as well as Ping-Pong table.
 
İzmir Forestry Camps
 
TanayForest Camp
Location: Ilica beach, 8km east of Cesme.
Facilities: 2000 person capacity, 150 tents in 70 hectares. Transport to the site from Izmir bus station and Üç Kuyular bus station. Lots of shade, public telephone, food stand/market, restaurant, beach, laundry area, bathrooms, kitchen facility for washing dishes, toilets, showers, drinking water, motor home sewage disposal.
Open:1 April-31 October
Tel: (0232) 723 50 19
Fax: (0232) 369 64 83
 
Teos-EmeksizForest Camp
Location: Sigacik, near Seferihisar, 50km southwest of Izmir.
Facilities: The 14 hectare site has a capacity of 1500 people, 150 tents. Tea garden, changing rooms, parking, picnic tables, drinking water, electricity, toilets and showers.
Open: 1 April-31 October
Tel: (0232) 369 47 01-02
Fax: (0232) 369 64 83
 
KalemlikForest Camp
Location: Gumuldur beach, Ozdere, 70km south of Izmir.
Facilities: 40 hectare campsite can hold 3000 people, 500 tents. Transport to the site leaves from Izmir bus station and Üç Kuyular bus station. A modern restaurant with a view of the sea, picnic tables, picnic tables, drinking water, parking, changing rooms, food stand, toilets and showers.
Open: 1 April-31 October
Tel: (0232) 369 47 01-02
Fax: (0232) 369 64 83
 
Gümüldür
Location: 66 Evler Gümüldür, 75km south of Izmir
Facilities: Campsite capacity for 3000 people, 500 tents. Transport to the site leaves from Izmir bus station and Üç Kuyular bus station. Tea garden, pide restaurant, market, common-use facilities, picnic tables, drinking and non-potable water, changing rooms, food stand, toilets showers.
Open:1 April-31 October
Tel: (0232) 369 47 01 / 02
Fax: (0232) 369 6483
 
Klaros (Deniz Pınarı) Forest Camp
Location: 25km from Kusadasi, near to the highway from Serefhisar. 70km south of Izmir.
Facilities: Adjacent is the ancient city of Klaros, one of the 12 cities of Ionic civilisation. The capacity is 3000 people, 100 tents. Picnic tables, beach, drinking and non-potable water, common-use facilities, changing rooms, food stand, toilets and showers.
Open: 01 April-31 October
Tel: (0232) 369 4701/02
Fax: (0232) 369 6483
 
İzmir Youth Camps
 
İzmir - Büyükliman Youth Camp
Çeşme/İzmir
Camp Tel: (+90-232) 717 12 44
Fax:(+90-232) 717 23 78
Administrative Office Tel : (+90-232) 464 80 30 / 464 /82 08
Administrative Fax: (+90-232) 464 81 83
 
The facility has 48 rooms each with 6 beds, a bathroom and toilet. There are tennis, basketball, volleyball and badminton courts. There are sailing and diving opportunities as well.
 
Distance from provincial headquarters to camp: 130 km. 1.5 hours
Distance from Çeşme to the camp: 7 km, 10 minutes.
 
Skiing Center : There is a natural ski run at the north base of the Bozdag mountain, and the Ski Centre based here is only 90 minutes from Izmir. It is famous for being the highest point and lowest humidity in the Aegean, making it a popular resort for winter sports and for escaping the summer heat. It has a ski school, plus 22 tourist bungalows, 12 hotel rooms, a restaurant, café, bar, shopping centre and health services.
 
Bozdağ Skiing Facility
 
İZMİR - Ödemiş - Bozdağ
 
Bozdag Ski Resort is near Odemis, 110km southeast of Izmir. .
 
Arrival: Izmir is easily accessible by road or by air. The ski resort can be reached directly from the city centre with public or private vehicles.
 
Geography: The skiing season runs between December to March, and there is a snow depth of around 100cm. The ski areas are at an altitude of between 1700 – 2157m and the northern slopes are suitable for alpine discipline.
 
Facilities: Accommodation facilities are under construction.
 
Ornithology : Kücük Menderes Basın, in which İzmir is situated, has two significant areas for bird watching; Lake Ildır and Kucuk Menderes Delta.
 
KüçükMenderesBasin Bird Areas
 
IldırGulfIslands
City: İzmir
Provinces: Çeşme, Karaburun
Surface Area: 957
Altitude : 0 - 218 m
Protection: Yes
Bird Species: It gains important bird area status with Tepeli karabatak (84 pairs) population.
Main Characteristics: rocky coastal islands
 
Küçük Menderes Delta
 
City: İzmir
Provinces: Selçuk
Surface Area : 1500
Altitude: Sea level
Protection: Yes
Bird Species: Küçük karabatak (max. 160) shelter within the region.
Main Characteristics: sweet water lakes, swamp
Water sports : Bays of İzmir have appropriate points for diving.
 
 Art, Culture and Amusement
 
For many years Izmir has enjoyed its reputation as a cosmopolitan city of culture. The Ataturk Cultural Centre hosts weekend concerts by the Izmir State Symphony Orchestra, and the Izmir State Opera and Ballet perform in an Ottoman art deco building on Milli Kutuphane Caddesi. During the summer there are events at the open-air theatre in the Kulturpark, and mid-June sees the month-long International Izmir festival with many events also in Cesme and Selcuk. The International Film Festival takes place every April, with foreign films shown in original language with subtitles.
 
Regular nightlife includes a host of bars and nightclubs in the wealthy suburb of Alsansak, with more venues on Birinci Kordon and the surrounding streets. The cinemas around the city centre tend to show blockbuster American films, many of which are dubbed into Turkish.
 
 Geography
 
With characteristics quite typical of a Mediterranean climate, the summers are hot and dry with an average temperature of 28°C in July and August, and winters cool and rainy at around 10°C.. Because of its location, the city tends to be a little cooler that the rest of the region, and the average water temperature varies between 11°C (January) to 26°C (August).
 
 History
 
The history of Izmir stretches back to around 3000 BC when the Trojans founded the city in Tepekule in the northern suburb of Bayrakli. This was the birthplace of Homer, who was thought to have lived here around the 8th century BC. The Aeolians, the first settlers, were eventually taken over by the Ionians, and then the Lydians destroyed the city around 600BC before a brief recovery following Alexander the Great’s arrival in 334 BC.
 
After his death, Alexander’s generals followed his wishes and re-established Smyrna on Mount Pagos in Kadifekale, and the city then prospered under the Romans. It was destroyed by an earthquake in 178 AD but later reconstructed and became a major commercial port. After the Byzantines, the city had a turbulent time under the Arabs, Seljuks, Crusaders and Mongols, until Mehmet I incorporated it into the Ottoman Empire in 1415. Under Suleyman the Magnificent, Smyrna became a thriving and sophisticated city and a huge trading centre, despite its frequent earthquakes. It was cosmopolitan, with Greek Orthodox, Jews and Muslims, and many languages were spoken amongst locals and visiting traders.
 
Following World War I and the defeat of the Ottoman Empire, Greece was granted a mandate over Izmir and entered the area, coming against the resistance of Ataturk’s nationalists. This resulted in a 3-day bloody battle, during which 70% of the city was burned to the ground and thousands were killed, and the beaten Greeks eventually left on the waiting ships. Ataturk formally took Izmir on 9 September 1922, considered to be the day of victory in the War of Independence and is a national holiday.
 
 Where to Eat
 
Izmir’s cuisine has largely been affected by its multicultural history, hence the large variety of food originating from the Aegean, Mediterranean and Anatolian regions. Another factor is the large area of land surrounding the region which grows a rich selection of vegetables. Some of the common dishes found here are tarhana soup (made from dried yoghurt and tomatoes), Izmir meatballs, keskek (boiled wheat with meat) zerde (sweetened rice with saffron) and mucver (made from squash and eggs).
 
 What to Buy
 
The busiest shopping area is the Kemeralti Streets, which still retain a 19th century atmosphere of pull-down shutters, thresholds of the doors, low ceilings and old briquettes. On both sides of Anafartalar Caddesi is the lively atmosphere of the street vendors, bronze workers and fishermen, and Fevzipasa Bulvari which is famous for its leather garments. In contrast to the traditional and busy old market, Alsacak has modern boutiques and Cankaya has a huge shopping centre much.
 
 Don't Leave Without
 
- Visiting Birgi Cakiraga Mansion, Kızlarağası Han, and Asansör,
 
- Stepping into the past in Izmir Archaeology Museum, Ataturk Museum, Kordonboyu and Kemeralti Bazaar.
 
- Tasting Izmir’s famous meatballs in the Asansor Restaurant.
 
- Buying tasty local dried figs and sultanas
 
- Shopping for Ödemis Silk (Pembizar), hand-painted handkerchiefs and Görece blue beads,
 
- Visiting the International Izmir Festival.
 
 Sites
 
Registered Immobile Cultural and Natural Heritages in İzmir
 
Sites
 
Archaeological Sites: 253
Urban Sites: 26
Natural Sites: 155
Historical Sites: 28
 
Other Sites
 
Archaeological and Natural Sites: 18
Historical and Natural Sites: 1
Archaeological and Urban Sites: 7
Historical and Urban Sites: 4
Natural and Urban Sites: 1
Total: 493
Cultural (at Single Construction Scale) and Natural Heritages: 4395
 
TOTAL: 4888
 
 Contact Information
 
Governorship : (+90-232) 441 14 40
Municipality : (+90-232) 482 11 70
Hospital : (+90-232) 366 88 88
Police : (+90-232) 489 05 00
Tourism Police : (+90-232) 446 14 54
Gendarme : (+90-232) 583 60 08
Provincial Directorate : (+90-232) 483 62 16/483 51 17
Provincial Cultural Directorate : (+90-232) 482 06 95
Tourism Information Office : (+90-232) 445 73 90
Gaziemir Tourism Information Office : (+90-232) 274 22 14
Ödemiş Contact Office : (+90-232) 545 31 50
Tire Contact Office : (+90-232) 512 66 14
Özdere Contact Office : (+90-232) 797 85 05
Adnan Menderes Airport : (+90-232) 274 21 10
Bornova Emergency Travmatoloji : (+90-232) 374 23 23
Harbour : (+90-232) 464 88 64 - 464 88 89
Governorship : (+90-232) 441 14 40
Municipality : (+90-232) 482 11 70
Hospital : (+90-232) 366 88 88
Police : (+90-232) 489 05 00
Tourism Police : (+90-232) 446 14 54
Gendarme : (+90-232) 583 60 08
Provincial Directorate : (+90-232) 483 62 16/483 51 17
Tourism Information Office : (+90-232) 445 73 90
Gaziemir Tourism Information Office : (+90-232) 274 22 14
Ödemiş Contact Office : (+90-232) 545 31 50
Tire Contact Office : (+90-232) 512 66 14
Özdere Contact Office : (+90-232) 797 85 05
Adnan Menderes Airport : (+90-232) 274 21 10
Bornova Emergency Travmatoloji : (+90-232) 374 23 23
Harbour : (+90-232) 464 88 64 - 464 88 89
 
Bergama Camping Bergama Y.Illıca / G.İzmir
Tel: (232) 633 39 02
 
Berksoy Turizm İşl. Bergama
Tel: (232) 633 25 95
 
Afacan Motel Camping Yenişarkan / İncirlik
Tel: (232) 628 70 30
 
Oba Camping Güzbahçe / İzmir
Tel: (232) 234 20 15
 
U-Camp Çeşmealtı Urla / İzmir
Tel: (232) 755 10 21
 
Evren Camping Karaburun / İzmir
Tel: (232) 489 94 54
 
V-Camp Ilıca-Çeşme / İzmir
 Tel: (232) 717 22 24
 
Denizatı Camping Gümüldür / İzmir
Tel: (232) 793 10 19
 
Dalpet Camping Aydın Yolu/İzmir
Tel: (232) 257 52 01
 
Turiste Motel Camping İzmir
Tel: (232) 722 12 21
 
Pamucak Tur. Tes. Selçuk
Tel: (232) 892 36 36
 
Gümüldür 66 Evler Gümüldür / İzmir
Tel: (232) 793 19 97
 
Tanay Şifne Yolu, Ilıca / Çeşme
Tel: (232) 729 35 76
 
Teos-Emeksiz Sığacık, Seferihisar / İzmir
Tel: (232) 369 64 85
 
Kalemlik Çukurallı Mah. Özdere / İzmir
Tel: (232) 369 64 85


 





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